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giovedì 28 settembre 2017

Anthropology of Globalization for Global Governance #1 & #2

27/09/17 There we go. Eventually Wednesday 27th we started "Anthropology of Globalization" for Global Governance, years 2 and 3 together. Four full hours in class, since the first two hours were a make up for the class due for 4th October and cancelled because we have the inauguration ceremony the same day.
It was exciting to meet the students, always attentive and provocative as only GG students can be here in Rome.
So, we are going to talk about Anthropology of Globalization. I have divided the course in two parts. In the first we’ll talk about cultural anthropology, the technical meaning of “culture” and the way we can investigate such a slippery concept. Assigned reading for this part (it shall last approximately till the end of October) are
·        Notes from class
                                                
In the second we’ll focus on cultural dimensions of Globalization, bringing to surface different case studies, mostly taken from my fieldwork experience in Rome and related to the assigned reading of
·        Global Rome. The changing faces of the eternal city, the great book edited by Isabella Clough-Marinaro and Bjorn Thomassen

We started with some practical pieces of information, about this blog, the online lessons in mp3 format and the possibility to write feedbacks that count as pre-midterm reports to be evaluated.
Taking on one question about surprise tests in class (there will be none), I briefly elaborated on the model of basic behavioural patterns for humans:
1. competition
2. cooperation
3. reciprocity
4. revenge
QUESTION FOR YOU: report one example for each type of social behaviour. At least four standard page lines for type (total 15 lines minimum)
Then we discussed about the concept of CULTURE, and we elaborated a definition of it as whatever knowledge that has been ACQUIRED, pitting it against INNATE KNOWLEDGE.
ANOTHER QUESTION FOR YOU: list innate and acquired forms of human knowledge. More important, bring examples where the distinction is blurred and not clear at all (20 lines)
Next class I promised I should start from “Rocks and fairies”. We’ll definitely touch that important point that has to do with the
·        symbolic dimension of culture
but before we’ll analyse two other dimensions of culture the way anthropologists mean in, namely:
·        Culture is acquired (and we will see it can be acquired in different forms, and that makes the difference)
·        Culture is shared (with some extremely clear limitations. We shall thus begin to debate the de-finition of cultures, to what extent we can really detect cultural BOUNDARIES

·        See you in class Monday 2nd October in room P12!

77 commenti:

Francesco Bono ha detto...

QUESTION 1:
An example which links all the basic human behaviour could be a pair of students during an exam.
Student A and student B may not have studied properly, so they need to cooperate to be able to answer all the questions. Assuming that the professor is not paying attention to the way his students behave during the exam, students A and B may decide to cooperate, sharing their knowledge in order to pass the exam. Both of them benefit from the decision, because they wouldn’t have passed the exam otherwise.
On the contrary, we can assume that student A wants to retaliate against student B and he decides not to cooperate, even if he knows he is not ready for the exam. In the end both of them lose something because none of them pass the exam. Moreover, student A doesn’t get anything back.
Students A and B may be competing for a scholarship which will be given to the student who gets the highest mark at the exam. Since student A studied more, he wins the scholarship. Student B gets a lower mark at the exam and doesn’t get anything.
We can eventually assume that only student B didn’t study properly, whereas student A is ready for the exam and helps student B without expecting something back. Student A and B are best friend and this way of behaving is reciprocal: it is the way student B will behave whenever student A will need his help.

QUESTION 2:
In class, we distinguished between innate and acquisitive knowledge. Every human being has got knowledge from the moment he/she was born but he/she needs lot of experiences and social stimuli to activate it and to become an expert. An example could be reading or walking: we all have the capacity to move our bodies and to see inside of us, but we understand how to walk properly and how to read thanks to the stimuli we receive by our parents and teachers. Even emotions we feel are within ourselves from the moment we were born. We learn how to manage and express them by living our daily lives, respecting some standards which the community we live in teaches us.
An interesting example to look at is pain, which has to be distinguished in physical and psychological. We know pain exists only because we experience it and we all react to physical pain in the same way, either getting the hand away from fire as we said in class, or more generally escaping it. This is an innate instinct that we all have. But what about psychological pain? In this case the situation is more complicated because we do categorise it as pain, but not everybody is able to react to it properly and especially not everybody reacts to it in the same way. It depends on the acquisitive knowledge we get in our life. According to what I understood so far, it is what we call culture, which is different in each of us.

Francesco Bono ha detto...
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Sara di fabio ha detto...

Question 1:
I believe that all these social behaviours can be related to athletes in the sporting world.
First, we can say that competition sometimes is the main drive for athletes, especially the ones who perceive winning or the gold metal as their final objective. Competition can be very tough and people could become aggressive to the point of revenge. For instance, they may somehow damage the winner, because they have lost the game and they might be looking for some kind of satisfaction.
Competition can be among individuals or teams. The latter involves cooperation among athletes of the same team. Players belonging to the same team need to cooperate to win the game, which is their common goal.
In addition, when we talk about teams, reciprocity needs to be taken into consideration. In my opinion, the players of the same team need to swear by each other, without expecting anything in return. In cases of extreme sports, such as ice climbing, there is no room for distrust and people should not demand rewards for what they do. On the contrary, they should trust that their teammates would take the same actions.

QUESTION 2:
The distinction between innate and acquired knowledge is complicated, as emerged during the class. In my opinion, we can consider as innate knowledge all the involuntary functions of the body, such as breathing and blinking. On the other hand, the acquired knowledge includes what we learn from everyday life. For instance, when we are child we learn how to speak, how to eat and then at school we learn history, geography etc.
Although the previous distinction seems to be clear, when things like instinct and emotions are brought to the discussion is difficult to say if they are innate or not. In the case of instinct, I would say it is something we were born with. However, people are also able to develop their own instinct when they are exposed to certain environments. For example, the survival instinct that can manifest in dangerous situations. Indeed, even if it is something that we have since the birth it might develop and change during our life. Regarding emotions, they are personal and unique, but is it enough to say that are innate? As for instinct, emotions are flexible and they are affected by the external environment. Indeed, we feel emotions as a consequence to the empirical world.
Finally, since human knowledge is mostly acquired I would say that the main innate knowledge of human beings is the ability to learn. If this it is true, it means that human beings have an innate potential to learn everything and they develop some skills rather than others depending on the environment they are exposed to. So, people will end up having different knowledges because they might have lived in Rome instead of Delhi, in high-income countries instead of low-income countries, in a religious environment instead of an atheist one.

Sara di fabio ha detto...
Questo commento è stato eliminato dall'autore.
Sara Massimi ha detto...

QUESTION 1:
1. Competition: “a situation in which someone is trying to win something or be more successful than someone else.” It is a zero-sum game. If I think at the word in itself, the first think that come to my mind is a 100 meters race at the Olympic Games. Nevertheless, if I move my attention to the definition the professor gave us: a zero-sum game, the example will be the bargaining strategy that nations use among themselves in periods of crisis. Therefore, competition, under the form of bargaining strategy, could be easily found in the International Relations studies. For example, a zero-sum game was in 2003 between Bush and Saddam Husseini, i.e. by saying “if you do not dismantle your nuclear power, I will invade you”, why it is a zero-sum game? Because there were 2 possibilities for Hussein, and both of them deprive himself of something at the expenses of Bush, thus making more successful the latter. Last but not least let’s take as example the textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts during 1912, referred to as the “Bread and Roses strike” in which women were striking in order to have rights under the slogan “we want bread, but we want roses too”, why it was a zero-sum game? Because, or the workers get what they needed or they stopped to work, thus leaving the industry with huge financial losses.

2. Co-operation: we can define it as a win-win game. Class action could be an example of co-operation, i.e. when a group of, usually more than 40 people, who have been injured by the same party in the same way, gathers together to redress a wrong in a court room. In this case we are talking about people that don’t know each other, that maybe have suffered for a grave wrongdoing that gathers together for the same purpose, that in this case could be defined as justice. The interesting part in the class action story is that, it is really keen to problems of free ride. Nevertheless, class actions work so much that from being used just in the common law sphere, thus especially in USA and UK, it is now becoming used also in Europe. So why do class actions work? For me is a matter of cooperation among human beings, working together, be stronger together, even if there are possibilities of being “bribed” by receiving money not to collaborate in the class action, just to reach the common benefit of everyone, this for me is the sense of co-operation.

Sara Massimi ha detto...

CONTINUE QUESTION 1:
3. Reciprocity: we defined reciprocity as a system of gifts and as cooperation plus time. Maybe the best way to explain reciprocity is with the birthday example, I gift you something and you will reciprocate to me back at my birthday. Nevertheless, allow me a provocation, when in class, I was thinking to my experience in a Youth exchange program, there, we were talking about gender, in that moment especially gender norms, and I was assisting to a conversation in which 2 girls where defining the simple act of a man opening the door to a woman or him paying the bill of the first date as an act of Balanced reciprocity: I give you something, in this case the money for the bill or the courtesy of opening you a door, and then you have to give me back something (in that case they were talking about a sex-related act). Meanwhile others were defining those 2 cases as a form of General reciprocity, i.e. I give you something for pure kindness, without asking for something else in exchange. In that specific conversation we did not arrive to a general truth, and I don’t think that there can be one because of the behavioral differences between human beings in general, nonetheless, we could easily define those 2 practices as a form of reciprocity, but do not knowing if is General or Balanced reciprocity.

4. Revenge: we defined it as a system in which if you lose something you will make it possible that I have to lose something too, thus both of us will lose. It stroked me when the professor says that also jails are a system of vengeance/revenge and that sometimes justice and revenge overlap. Indeed, I thought about it and if you think, in the past we used a system of revenge to ask for justice, the most used phrase that today we still continue to use is “an eye for an eye” also known as law of retaliation, which first example is the Hammurabi Code, that, as a matter of fact, was also used to describe the punishments for the souls in Dante’s Inferno especially under the so-called name of Contrappasso. Thus, we can really say that our justice was conceived under a form of revenge.

Sara Massimi ha detto...

QUESTION 2

Knowledge could be innate and acquired. Our innate knowledge is the one that more resembles the animal behavior, thus, example of that can be breathing, being hungry, beat our eyelashes to moisten the visual mucous, to sneeze and to cough, and to move and to emit sounds. I used those 2 words instead of walking and speaking because for me those can be related to the sphere of the acquired knowledge. Indeed, I had an interesting conversation with one of my best friends who recently had got a baby little girl that is now 9 months old, she was telling to me that for her it was really strange the fact that even the most basic things as for example throwing yourself backward or forward could lead to an injury. Therefore, the innate things are for me those ones that relate to the really first moments you enter in the world, thus, breath, emitting sound, open and close your eyes, being hungry and move yourself, because even a thig as don’t throw yourself from a cliff is acquired through the experience of the many falls we did when we were children. Another behavior in the field of the blurred line between the innate and the acquired behavior is walking, for us we know how to walk, we always knew it and maybe now it is even more difficult for us to crawl than to walk, but from what I perceived from the lecture in class I am now at a cross road: walking is innate knowledge, or walk is acquired.
Here is my thinking: to walk, as also the professor said, is an acquired knowledge because the child at first crawls around and then, after having seen the parents walking with 2 legs, thus, after having learned how his/her parents walk he/she also start to try to walk and in that moment the parents start to take his/her hands and help him/her until he/she is able to walk alone. Nevertheless, from my personal experience as the “aunty” of the aforementioned 9 months old baby girls, this belief that the walking is an acquired knowledge was putted into question, indeed, Vittoria, the baby girl’s name, never crawled before, she just started to stand on 2 legs, thus leading me to the conclusion that walking is in that mysterious blurred line between the 2 forms of knowledge.

Silvia Marcelli ha detto...

Question 1: An example of the first social behavior, competition, can be found in the sports such as a marathon where all the contestants do their best in order to arrive before the other participants and thus winning the competition, which of course implies the other contestants being losers.
Instead, an example for the behavior of cooperation can be witnessed among mountain climbers. Indeed they need each other support and help in order to reach the peak of the mountain. If they do not cooperate they will never be able to achieve their goal by their own.
A classic example for the third social behavior, reciprocity, is verified during an exam session. In fact, students are usually kin to arrange study groups in order to prepare themselves for the exams. This kind of decision implies every student sharing their classes' notes with each other, knowing that the other members of the group will do the same thing.
The last sample is referred to the revenge. For example, when someone decides not to invite you to some kind of event organized by him/her, you, of course angry about it, decide to give back to him/her by not inviting him/her to yours. The result at the end will be both of them loosing a party.

Question 2: The innate and acquired knowledge is present in al human beings and they are strongly connected to each other. Indeed the innate knowledge is imprinted in our genes but it needs to be activated through a process of socialization, which is the reason why the acquired one is way higher because it tends to cover the innate one, being felt as spontaneous.Examples of innate knowledge are the basic ability of all human beings such as writing, reading, talking and walking. Although even if we consider this kind of human capacity as given it must be noticed how we tend to have an acquired knowledge an all our behavior and innate abilities. In fact, even though the capacity to speak it is in our genetics, the language we spoke is learned without knowing, through listening to the others talking and exhorting us to do the same. The same happens with the walking, as we said in class if nobody had pushed us to stand on two feet we would have walked differently. It is the same for the writing and reading, the capacity to formulate sentences and writing them down is innate as well as the capacity to read and understand them, but the way to do both of them is acquired through socialization.
However, this distinction is not always clear. For example, the case of the human races is most confusing one: right now we would say that black people come from Africa and the white ones from the west part of the world. But this is not always true, indeed there might be cases in which there are French or Engish black people that have never lived in Africa, and they are Europeans under every aspect. This sample shows how it does not exist an original human race but they are all mixed up as a result of the ancient migrations and thus the process of "fitting" to new cultures. So there are not natural behaviors belonging to the human beings, they are all result of a process of adaptation that because of our tendency to learn appear to be something given and thus natural.

Marco Siniscalco ha detto...

QUESTION 1:
A concrete example which connects the basic behavioural patterns for humans could be represented by two footballers. Assume that a football team buys two renowned players to have more chances to win the championship. These new players have always been great rivals struggling for fame and success. However, the decisive match is played against a very strong team, so they need to cooperate to win the championship. Both players take advantage of their abilities to collaborate and create goal actions instead of trying to score individually. The outcome is that both benefit from the decision because they have more chances to win.
On the other hand, players may decide to compete trying to make the difference individually instead of collaborating, even if they are playing against the strongest team of the championship. In the end, both lose.
During the match, it may also happen that player A wants strongly to score because he is more emotionally involved. Therefore, player B leaves him the pleasure of beating a penalty kick even if this means that he is going to score fewer goals. This way of behaving is reciprocal: player A will do the same for player B in an identical situation.
In conclusion, we can also assume that player B wants to injure player A for revenge because he caused him a serious injury when they were playing in opposing teams. In the end, nobody benefits from this action because player A can’t play anymore and player B is replaced with another player because of the bad action he has committed.

QUESTION 2:
As we said in class, innate knowledge is knowledge which is not founded on, nor can be explicated by, experience or sense data. It is knowledge that derives from inside our own minds; or knowledge which is innately genetic. An illustration of this could be that of nursing. Babies do not require (as far as I know) to obtain the capability to nurse through experience. They know how to do it by nature, as in, they come into existence with this knowledge. Likewise, do horses and pigs know how to walk instantaneously as they are born. Another example of innate knowledge is related to the fact that humans have an ability, at least partially inborn, to understand grammar and syntax - a theory known as Universal Grammar.
On the other hand, acquired knowledge is related to experience, education. A concrete example of this could be that of swimming. A baby who swims for the first time has the instinct to keep himself afloat for not drowning, but only due to the stimuli received by the swimming teachers he will learn to swim properly. Other two illustrations of acquired knowledge could be cooking and talking. Everyone needs to eat to avoid dying, but only thanks to specific stimuli that we receive we learn to eat appropriately. Similarly, we are not able to talk properly from the beginning but we learn how to do it due to the teachings we receive.

Tamoi Fujii ha detto...

- Examples for basic human behaviours: In this section I will draw examples from the field of instrumental music
1. Competition: Rivalry. You have studied violin since age 5 and now, 13 years later you participate to the national violin competition. There is another young talented violin player who lives next your home and you hear how much he practices. This makes you practice even more, because the sentiment of prevailing, being the best is part of being human, and you know there is only one winner. Eventually in the competition you arrive 2nd, that's to say, the best of the losers.
2. Cooperation: You don't give up although the failure at the violin competition, and you propose the winner violin player to build up a string quartet of young talented musicians. He accept to cooperate on this project, which is very successful internationally, and you both become famous thanks to this group.
3. Reciprocity: The string quartet is already broken up. The headmaster of the Julliard school of Music is a friend of yours and he asks you, if you know a good violin player, who can be the new assistant professor for violin at his school. You recommend him your old string quartet companion. The new assistant professor is very grateful and eventually gives you a gig at the prestigious Carnegie Hall.
4. Revenge: The concert at the Carnegie Hall is a flop, the program was awful, as well as the other musicians. Your name was on the poster of the concert, and now everybody in the musical field thinks you are a failure. You think that this is all your old friend's fault and you spread rumors about how he rigged past violin competitions, making him lose his post at Julliard.


- Examples for different sorts of knowledge:
Innate: chewing, breathing, drinking, shoo disturbing and dangerous insects away, breastfeeding...
Acquired: driving, applauding, using artificial objects (cellphone, glasses, footballs) etc.
An on-the-edge example is singing: our vocal chords are built to create sound in different pitches. When we listen to some catchy melody (Just think of "eye of the tiger" or "the final countdown) it is very natural to sing them. We also do not need anybody to teach us how to sing (only at professional level), and we do not remember when we started doing so. Also, any culture I know of has got some singing in it (although styles are different, it is basically the same everywhere).
However primates other than humans do not usually sing, as well as many humans (when they are not showering). This leads to the conclusion, that although we are inclined to singing, singing itself comes from a mechanism of emulation we possess, that lead us to singing "Despacito", although we openly hate it.

Giorgia Morucci ha detto...

competition derives from the latin verb "CUMPETERE": "CUM" means "together" and "PETERE" means "to go toward something", so the verb as a whole means to run together in order to reach something. lets think of two athletes running on a track. if we stick to the original meaning of competition, the two athletes should be running together towards the same objective: the finish line. What is important to highlight is that, even though the two athletes are running together - and for TOGETHER I mean in the SAME PRECISE MOMENT - they are not running SIDE BY SIDE, helping each other to reach the same objective, but rather ONE AGAINST THE OTHER. Therefore, running together towards something does not imply mutual help at all, which is instead found in a cooperative behavior.
Indeed cooperation involves working together - not simply running together in the same moment - for the realization of something. While competition remains on an individualistic level, cooperation requires empathy and mutual trust between the agents.
Going back to the example of athletes running on a track, competition would be found in an individual race, where athletes run all in the same moment, but willing to win for themselves alone; cooperation instead would be found in a relay race, where there is a team of athletes running and - at the same time - WORKING TOGETHER, for the overall benefit of the whole team and not of one single athlete.
Competition and cooperation are not the only types of human interactions: as a matter of fact, we are also inclined to vengeful behaviors, which occur when you want to damage someone in return for a wrong. Revenge is a personal and subjective kind of punishment/justice. The underlying idea is that, through revenge, the actors are now "EVEN". I will provide one example of revenge that occurs to me with my sister on a daily basis. it happens very often that my sister "steals" clothes from my wardrobe. As a consequence, I feel obliged to take action. When I was a child, I used to go to my mother and ask her to intervene, but as I grew up, I managed to confront my sister by myself, either by "stealing" something back or by not doing some favors to her.
Reciprocity is the exact opposite, it is doing something to someone to be both better off: there is an implicit "agreement" establishing that the two actors will behave in the same manner for each other. For reciprocity as well I will provide an example which occurs on a daily basis to me with my best friend. When we go out, one of us pays for the other without even telling her but none of us feels: either ashamed for not paying or mad for having paid. What is more, the one who paid does not pretend anything in return but she knows that at a certain point, she will be paid back for sure.

Giorgia Morucci ha detto...

competition derives from the latin verb "CUMPETERE": "CUM" means "together" and "PETERE" means "to go toward something", so the verb as a whole means to run together in order to reach something. lets think of two athletes running on a track. if we stick to the original meaning of competition, the two athletes should be running together towards the same objective: the finish line. What is important to highlight is that, even though the two athletes are running together - and for TOGETHER I mean in the SAME PRECISE MOMENT - they are not running SIDE BY SIDE, helping each other to reach the same objective, but rather ONE AGAINST THE OTHER. Therefore, running together towards something does not imply mutual help at all, which is instead found in a cooperative behavior.
Indeed cooperation involves working together - not simply running together in the same moment - for the realization of something. While competition remains on an individualistic level, cooperation requires empathy and mutual trust between the agents.
Going back to the example of athletes running on a track, competition would be found in an individual race, where athletes run all in the same moment, but willing to win for themselves alone; cooperation instead would be found in a relay race, where there is a team of athletes running and - at the same time - WORKING TOGETHER, for the overall benefit of the whole team and not of one single athlete.
Competition and cooperation are not the only types of human interactions: as a matter of fact, we are also inclined to vengeful behaviors, which occur when you want to damage someone in return for a wrong. Revenge is a personal and subjective kind of punishment/justice. The underlying idea is that, through revenge, the actors are now "EVEN". I will provide one example of revenge that occurs to me with my sister on a daily basis. it happens very often that my sister "steals" clothes from my wardrobe. As a consequence, I feel obliged to take action. When I was a child, I used to go to my mother and ask her to intervene, but as I grew up, I managed to confront my sister by myself, either by "stealing" something back or by not doing some favors to her.
Reciprocity is the exact opposite, it is doing something to someone to be both better off: there is an implicit "agreement" establishing that the two actors will behave in the same manner for each other. For reciprocity as well I will provide an example which occurs on a daily basis to me with my best friend. When we go out, one of us pays for the other without even telling her but none of us feels: either ashamed for not paying or mad for having paid. What is more, the one who paid does not pretend anything in return but she knows that at a certain point, she will be paid back for sure.

Francesca Scanavini ha detto...

I would like to make four examples with very different contexts. For what concerns competition, an appropriate example could be when two people are confronting about a topic, upon which they do not agree one another, and one of the interlocutors, instead of trying to understand the reason of the other one, just wants to demonstrate that he/she is right. So he/she puts himself/herself in competition with the other person to award the winner and the loser of the discussion. For another behavioral pattern such as cooperation, I thought about a family which divides among all the members certain duties ( ex: clean the rooms, go for grocery shopping..) in order that anyone at the same time could contribute with less effort but anyway benefits from the results achieved. Therefore it is a clear situation of a win-win game. Moving forward to another kind of human behavior, we have talked in class of reciprocity and its different levels. A reciprocity’s behavior could be when someone renounces to an important appointment in order to see you. Specifically, when a person considers you as a priority you feel like you should reciprocate the same treatment he /she reserves for you. As the last example, we have the one of the revenge. Revenge is, as we discussed in class, typical of humans and it consists of a lose-lose game: if you made me lose something, I’ll make you lose something too. An example of this could be when someone does not keep a promise you made with him/her that makes you feel betrayed and you start desiring him/her to receive the same treatment back and to make him/her prove the same suffering you have felt.
In class, we discussed about the meaning of culture and from that concept to the difference between acquired knowledge and innate one. If I have to think about innate knowledge typical of human beings my mind trace me back to the primitive needs and instincts of the humans. I think that the need for group’s interaction and the act upon instinct, are two things that could be considered as innate knowledge because I believe that humans are really naturally prone to react instinctively and to interact and get in contact with other individuals. Another kind of knowledge comes to my mind that could be resembled as an innate one even if the limit is more blurred. I thought about the perception of justice and fairness of humans. From one side it appears to me as something natural, for example: when you are a child and you are accused of something you did not do, you feel it as an injustice even if nobody taught you about it. But the concept of fairness and justice could also come from family’s education and the cultural influence around you. I think this concept ( on the perception of justice) it is hard to define because it is strictly linked with emotions. Another example I would like to bring is the act of caring and love. I think nobody teaches us the way in which we have to love someone, or why and when doing it. But I could also see the same aspect from a different point of view. Probably, when we grow up we care and love our parents because they have first loved us and we have received something from them. However, the central question to solve is: are emotions innate? It is so central to me because most of the things that I consider not acquired are driven by emotions. But emotions sometimes are driven also by personality, that according to me, is very connected to the environment we live in and the influence of our surroundings. For example laughing is something it may appear innate. But, I think it is also strongly linked with the cultural style of a person. Probably, we learn to laugh about things that also our group, community, society consider to be funny. Therefore, it is very hard to define innate knowledge because everything seems deeply mixed with what we acquired from the outside.

Francesca Scanavini ha detto...

I would like to make four examples with very different contexts. For what concerns competition, an appropriate example could be when two people are confronting about a topic, upon which they do not agree one another, and one of the interlocutors, instead of trying to understand the reason of the other one, just wants to demonstrate that he/she is right. So he/she puts himself/herself in competition with the other person to award the winner and the loser of the discussion. For another behavioral pattern such as cooperation, I thought about a family which divides among all the members certain duties ( ex: clean the rooms, go for grocery shopping..) in order that anyone at the same time could contribute with less effort but anyway benefits from the results achieved. Therefore it is a clear situation of a win-win game. Moving forward to another kind of human behavior, we have talked in class of reciprocity and its different levels. A reciprocity’s behavior could be when someone renounces to an important appointment in order to see you. Specifically, when a person considers you as a priority you feel like you should reciprocate the same treatment he /she reserves for you. As the last example, we have the one of the revenge. Revenge is, as we discussed in class, typical of humans and it consists of a lose-lose game: if you made me lose something, I’ll make you lose something too. An example of this could be when someone does not keep a promise you made with him/her that makes you feel betrayed and you start desiring him/her to receive the same treatment back and to make him/her prove the same suffering you have felt.
In class, we discussed about the meaning of culture and from that concept to the difference between acquired knowledge and innate one. If I have to think about innate knowledge typical of human beings my mind trace me back to the primitive needs and instincts of the humans. I think that the need for group’s interaction and the act upon instinct, are two things that could be considered as innate knowledge because I believe that humans are really naturally prone to react instinctively and to interact and get in contact with other individuals. Another kind of knowledge comes to my mind that could be resembled as an innate one even if the limit is more blurred. I thought about the perception of justice and fairness of humans. From one side it appears to me as something natural, for example: when you are a child and you are accused of something you did not do, you feel it as an injustice even if nobody taught you about it. But the concept of fairness and justice could also come from family’s education and the cultural influence around you. I think this concept ( on the perception of justice) it is hard to define because it is strictly linked with emotions. Another example I would like to bring is the act of caring and love. I think nobody teaches us the way in which we have to love someone, or why and when doing it. But I could also see the same aspect from a different point of view. Probably, when we grow up we care and love our parents because they have first loved us and we have received something from them. However, the central question to solve is: are emotions innate? It is so central to me because most of the things that I consider not acquired are driven by emotions. But emotions sometimes are driven also by personality, that according to me, is very connected to the environment we live in and the influence of our surroundings. For example laughing is something it may appear innate. But, I think it is also strongly linked with the cultural style of a person. Probably, we learn to laugh about things that also our group, community, society consider to be funny. Therefore, it is very hard to define innate knowledge because everything seems deeply mixed with what we acquired from the outside.

martina forbicini ha detto...

Question 1
1.As regards competition, a good example could be described taking into account the field of work: if we imagine the context of a job trial, lasting one week and involving two candidates, one of whom eventually will be hired, we can get a clear picture of what competition really means. In this specific case, each one of them will try his/her own best in order to be noticed and outdo the other: both want to achieve the same goal which, however, cannot be shared. At the end, there will be no win-win situation: one will get the position and one will be fired. 2.With respect to cooperation, we can think of the scenario of a volleyball team taking part in a match. The members of the group are aware of the impossibility of a victory without the cooperation of all the single components: therefore, each one of them will play bearing in mind the necessity of supporting the others throughout the match. Everybody will be having an active role, showing full participation and commitment. Following this behavior will be the only method to reach the same shared objective - winning the contest. 3.Concerning reciprocity, it can be somehow considered as a system of gifts dealing with time and faith/trust. There exist several types: general reciprocity, meaning that who’s donating something does not expect anything back, such as in the case of charity; balanced reciprocity which is characterized by an expectation of receiving something after having given it, such as a birthday gift between friends; negative reciprocity which can be described as taking without asking for permission, a pure form of stealing such as in a case of robbery. 4.Last but not least, revenge can be represented, for example, supposing that a toy is stolen from a kid by another kid: the one that suffers the loss will take revenge by stealing from him something else. Even if, vengeance might convey the satisfactory feeling of being even is actually a behavioral human pattern that results in negative consequences for both parties involved: they both lose something. The idea of revenge can overlap the concept of justice.
Question 2
Culture has been scientifically defined as acquired knowledge opposite to natural innate knowledge. While the former involves actions such as speaking a foreign language, driving a car, riding a bicycle, baking a cake and so on the latter describes everything we are able to do just because of the fact we are humans such as breathing, laughing, blinking… Often, it is tough to draw a line between what is innate and what is learned: how should we consider emotions? They can be seen as something we know because we were born with but at the same time we could consider them a lesson of the process of learning: by facing different experiences we can understand what loving, hating, suffering really mean. In other cases, it can be difficult to restrict certain types of actions in a specific category: let’s take the example of walking. When we are newborns, we do not do it automatically but we have to be taught of how to do it. Same for speaking a language: we need to be instructed on how to pronounce words, how to use grammar but the capability to talk belongs to everyone. Probably, the difficult of grasping the difference is rooted in the disposition towards learning, typical of human beings, which has to be activated through socialization. We are so disposed that we end up doing it spontaneously: the acquired knowledge becomes naturalized so that it seems like we have lost awareness of having learnt it to the point that it becomes part of our nature.

Riccardo Santini ha detto...

Human beings have both competitive and cooperative tendencies. We tend to be cooperative when we pursue a common goal, which could be beneficial to all parties. Such goal could be conceived in economic terms, such as in cooperative business which combines both consumers and firms to address market failures, or in social terms, that could be the case of social cooperatives which exist to generally provide services to children, disabled people, elderly and so on, to eventually benefit the community as a whole.
However, life is ultimately competitive. As a matter of fact, cooperative behavior has a fundamental weakness: free-riding. Indeed, people may gain substantial advantages thanks to others’ contributions.
Such perception of unfairness discourages a cooperative approach, and people do tend to compete.
We are constantly measuring our strengths and skills as we want to excel in what we do. Competition mainly occur when we are judged in relation to other people, such as in the workplace. Employers do demand efficient performance, that is why sometimes employees act for their best interests and compete for the first places or for gaining a promotion.
Because of competition, some people are so obsessed with success that start cheating to prevail over the others. Such dishonest behavior, once it is revealed, must be punished by the competent authorities. However, real restorative justice is often thought to be not enough to compensate the wrong committed to honest people. That is why wronged people often rely on revenge, as they feel offended by such a wrong behavior.
Revenge is a typical feature of human beings, who feel rewarded once they enter in such cycle of vengeance. Examples of revenge can be found in the everyday life, such as when a person is rude to the bus driver when he or she gets on, and then the bus driver pretend not to hear the bell when that person needs to get off.
Revenge is therefore a form of emotional release we think it could bring us satisfaction when we are being wronged.
Reciprocity, on the other hand, is quite the opposite of revenge, as it entails the ‘’duty’’ to exchange a favor we have received. This is true for balanced reciprocity (as in class we also distinguished general reciprocity, known as the ‘’true gift’’, and negative reciprocity, what we commonly call ‘’theft’’) which does refer to the frank exchange of a favor, of a good, or of a service. What first comes to my mind as an example of reciprocity is when I ask for a change of shift at work to one of my colleagues and when they ask me for the same I feel the duty to exchange the favor.

Riccardo Santini ha detto...

We are learning machines, we love to learn in order to satisfy our innately curious nature. We search for answers because we do want to understand the world and its dynamics.
Most of what we do, how we act, how we talk, is learnt. Our knowledge is therefore potentially infinite.
Researchers have shown how we are organized to learn as we are provided with intelligence, thus having the possibility to perceive the external stimuli and incorporate them as acquired knowledge.
Indeed, a fundamental distinction must be stated in this regard.
With the term acquired knowledge we mean the type of knowledge which is obtained from resources which are external to us and therefore can be learnt.
Then, human beings are born with ideas which are already shaped in our mind since our first breath in this world. Such innate knowledge (or natural) holds that we have already certain knowledge.
I learnt how to type faster with a keyboard, but I never learnt how to make my blood circulate or how to digest food.
What I find really interesting is the role of personality in this context. We think that our personality traits are born with us: our inner nature defines who we are, and we find difficulties in trying to change it.
But sometimes personality can be shaped by the social environment we have been living in since childhood.
I find it quite challenging as we can learn how to be patient, how to be loyal but if we are not ‘’programmed’’ for such traits, we would be more similar to machines which act in a cold way instead of acting in a natural way, following our inner selves.

Ludovica Vallati ha detto...

1) An example for what we described as competition could be almost every sports competition such as athletics races or tennis matches, in which individuals compete against each other to win a prize or a medal.
On the other hand, we can point out that even within this kind of competition, there are some examples of cooperation as well: in team sports like volley-ball or swimming relays, in thich team members join their forces to win against another team.
A good example for reciprocity could be friendship: we are kind to our friends, we trust them, we help them when they need it and we ask nothing in return, we just hope that they will eventually reciprocate our kindness.
An example for revenge instead, could be what italian "mafiosi" do when someone disobey the rules of the clan: when a former member of the clan choose to collaborate with institutions, the clan kills or threatens his/her family and relatives and this attitude, just like every revenge action, also function as deterrent for future "attacks".
2) While pointing out acquired knowledge is quite easy (we can easily think about the ability to read, write or compute), pointing out our innate knowledge is tricky: we can immediately think about physiological actions that we all do such as breathing, blinking or even coffing. However, we can run into some actions that are not so easy to collocate immediately in these two branches. For example, we can surely learn how to sing, or paint, we can learn the right techniques but in the end, some people will always be better than other ones, this is because talent and aptitude are not teachable, thus this makes these kind of activities difficult to collocate precisely into one branch or in the other one.

Giorgia Morucci ha detto...

all living beings have two fundamental components: innate and acquired knowledge. Innate knowledge is something that belongs to us because we have inherited it from our ancestors: it runs in our blood. Acquired knowledge on the other hand, is something that belongs to our knowledge because it has been taught to us.
In my opinion, the most innate of all knowledge is LOVE. Love is something that stays with us since we are born and which no one needs to explain to us. Once you are born you feel love towards your parents, since they are the only other human beings you know and with whom you share your life. When you grow up, this feeling evolves and starts to manifest itself towards an "outsider". this other person may belong to the opposite sex or he/she may also belong to your same sex. HERE is where I believe that acquired knowledge enters the game. Throughout the history, we have become accustomed to the fact that love should only exist between male and female and as a consequence, many believe this should be the unique kind of relationship because it is INNATE. therefore, Since love has for long been between male and female, love between persons of the same sex should belong to the ACQUIRED sphere of knowledge. Actually I believe that things work the other way round. Since love, in the past times has always been between male and female the line between acquired and innate knowledge has become blurred. We have always seen a man and a woman together so we think it has always been like this (=INNATE) while I believe it is an ACQUIRED concept. Love in its pure essence is innate, meaning that you can either love someone of your same sex or someone from the opposite sex.
Since reproduction of the species can only be ensured thanks to male and female together, it has now become a social convention,a cultural belief that men should only love women and viceversa. Therefore, since it is a cultural belief, it belongs to the acquired realm of knowledge. As a matter of fact, love does not correspond to reproduction.
Moreover, If love between male and female were to be an innate form of knowledge, it would definitely contradict the definition I gave at the beginning: we have not derived this kind of love from our ancestors. In fact, if we go back to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, male soldiers used to sleep together during wars and it was very common to have an homosexual relationship.

Sara ha detto...

A.
Let’s say we have two people working for the same firm. They’ve been knowing each other for a while, and have shared different kind of experiences, both as a team and as rivals.

1) They were first hired at the same time, so they both felt outsiders and needed each other’s back, both to settle in in the new environment and to learn all the new things they were required to learn in order to get things done. They collaborated and they both gained something from that collaboration.

2) On the contrary, once they got familiar with the new working environment, there had been times where they had to compete with each other to get promoted and cover higher positions they were both aspiring to. In this kind of situation, they were not collaborators anymore, they didn't run together to reach a common goal they could both achieve; they run against each other and only one of them benefited from the competition.

3) Overall, most of the times, workers X and Y found themselves helping each other; sometimes X would need Y’s help to get some things done, and sometimes it would be Y who needed X’s help and advice. Their relationship is based on reciprocity.

4) There had been this one time, though, where Y was very mad at X because he didn’t get promoted and X did, by using his personal connections. Y was envious and wanted to take revenge, so he deliberately did not deliver on time some paperwork that X needed to get some things done, and X had to take the responsibility for it.

B.
On the first Anthropology and Civilization lecture, an important distinction was made between acquired and innate knowledge.
For example, we were all born knowing how to breathe; nobody taught us how to do it, to us it is natural, so that is what we can call "innate knowledge".
On the other hand, none of us was born knowing how to read. That is something that we were taught to do, by people who were able to do it, so that’s an acquired knowledge.
There are some cases, though, where the limit between acquired and innate is extremely blurred and hard to identify. For example, the way we express emotions; each of us would have a personal way of doing so, that nobody taught us. At the same time, though, especially growing up, we need to realize that we can’t always express emotions the way we’d want to. We all receive external and social incentives that teach us how to manage our emotions and how to express them without doing any harm.
So, eventually, the knowledge of expressing emotions is both acquired and innate, and I find the limit between the two to be very blurred and hard to distinguish.
Another example where it’s hard to tell whether the knowledge is acquired or innate, is probably the language issue: nobody was born speaking a language right away, but at the same time nobody never really teaches us how to. At some point we just learn, and we do that especially thanks to the external stimuli we receive, but it is an unconscious learning. I would say it’s both natural and taught, so both innate and acquired.

elettra schininà ha detto...

1. Cooperation, reciprocity, competition and revenge are four behaviors of humans' instinct. When we are talking about cooperation, everyone wins. It is at all a positive action and everyone gets something positive from it. An example can be in athletics the relay race. everyone in the team is running to win, and they will win only cooperating to each others and being fair.
Reciprocity is about faith plus trust. It is like cooperating with each other but introducing the time. An example can be always between two athletes. We can say that athlete A and athlete B are friends, and one day athlete A arrived late at the training. Athlete B, covered him in front of the trainer. (without winning nothing). After some weeks athlete B, ate too much before the training, followed by bad results in the training and a trainer's earful. Athlete A covered athlete B saying that the bad results were due to an influential virus and not for a bad alimentation. They covered each others without getting something more, or winning.
Competition is when someone wins and someone other loses. An example of competition can be ,always in athletics, an individual race. For example in a drag race: everyone is running as fast as possible to win the first place. (for himself only).
Revenge is when everyone loses. Is nothing positive, it is a behavior that came out as natural but that is not bringing to anyone a positive turn. An example of revenge can be when there is so much competition between two athletes that athlete A do something to athlete B in order to bordering athlete B ,and then athlete B revenge on athletes A. (Maybe getting athlete A injured and being disqualified himself athlete B). Both two get penalized.

2. The distinction between innate and acquired knowledge can be both completely clear or sometimes not so clear. For definition an innate knowledge is something that no-one has to teach you, you have it from the first time of your existence, conscious or not conscious about it.
An acquired knowledge, is something that you have to learn from someone, something and so on. But innate and acquired knowledge, they influence each other and sometimes is not easy to understand the difference between the two.
For example, the baby ducks when they're born, they follow everywhere their mother. It can be seen as an innate knowledge, instead a study has demonstrated that the baby ducks are going to follow everything that is moving in front of them as their mother. And here we noticed the difference between a real innate knowledge that is the ability of our lungs to adapt to oxygen. The lungs can't ever adapt to CO2, as instead the baby ducks do to everything is moving in front of them.

elettra schininà ha detto...

1. Cooperation, reciprocity, competition and revenge are four behaviors of humans' instinct. When we are talking about cooperation, everyone wins. It is at all a positive action and everyone gets something positive from it. An example can be in athletics the relay race. everyone in the team is running to win, and they will win only cooperating to each others and being fair.
Reciprocity is about faith plus trust. It is like cooperating with each other but introducing the time. An example can be always between two athletes. We can say that athlete A and athlete B are friends, and one day athlete A arrived late at the training. Athlete B, covered him in front of the trainer. (without winning nothing). After some weeks athlete B, ate too much before the training, followed by bad results in the training and a trainer's earful. Athlete A covered athlete B saying that the bad results were due to an influential virus and not for a bad alimentation. They covered each others without getting something more, or winning.
Competition is when someone wins and someone other loses. An example of competition can be ,always in athletics, an individual race. For example in a drag race: everyone is running as fast as possible to win the first place. (for himself only).
Revenge is when everyone loses. Is nothing positive, it is a behavior that came out as natural but that is not bringing to anyone a positive turn. An example of revenge can be when there is so much competition between two athletes that athlete A do something to athlete B in order to bordering athlete B ,and then athlete B revenge on athletes A. (Maybe getting athlete A injured and being disqualified himself athlete B). Both two get penalized.

2. The distinction between innate and acquired knowledge can be both completely clear or sometimes not so clear. For definition an innate knowledge is something that no-one has to teach you, you have it from the first time of your existence, conscious or not conscious about it.
An acquired knowledge, is something that you have to learn from someone, something and so on. But innate and acquired knowledge, they influence each other and sometimes is not easy to understand the difference between the two.
For example, the baby ducks when they're born, they follow everywhere their mother. It can be seen as an innate knowledge, instead a study has demonstrated that the baby ducks are going to follow everything that is moving in front of them as their mother. And here we noticed the difference between a real innate knowledge that is the ability of our lungs to adapt to oxygen. The lungs can't ever adapt to CO2, as instead the baby ducks do to everything is moving in front of them.

Chiara Muzi ha detto...

Different patterns of human behaviour
• Competition: this kind of human attitude is present in everyday life since primordial times and it’s triggered by the scarcity of resources, opportunities and wealth. Let’s think of nowadays situation in the job market: when a job vacancy is advertised many candidates apply for it, trying to show themselves more suitable than the others. They all aim at the same thing, but only one person can reach the goal, defeating the others.
• Co-operation: it implies, like in the previous situation, that two or more people have the same goal. However, they can reach it together, in a win-win situation, combining their forces. Think of two people working on a difficult project: only by sharing their knowledge and putting aside the desire to stand out they can successfully achieve their task.
• Revenge: it is probably the most dark and complicate human behaviour. Thinking of revenge, probably Shakespeare in the tragedy Hamlet offers the best example of it. If you lose someone or something because of someone else you want him to feel as bad as you, like a sort of payment for their actions.
• Reciprocity: in this kind of behaviour time matters. It implies a cooperative attitude and trust among the people involved. If a colleague asks you for a favour, you are very likely to do it if you think that in the same situation he would do the same and therefore in the future he will be the one helping you.

Innate vs Acquired knowledge
Talking about culture in class, we felt the need to distinguish between innate and acquired knowledge. Us, as human beings, have an incredible capability of acquiring knowledge in many different ways, characteristic that allowed the first men to survive without having fur, fangs or poisonous bites on their side. However, our brain is a wonderful and mysterious place and often is not easy to distinguish between innate and acquired knowledge. Breathing and crying are the first things we do when coming to this world so we can put them easily in the “innate knowledge” box. On the opposite side can find the majority of our everyday actions: preparing breakfast in the morning, reading the newspaper, driving our car, we learnt these things at different ages, but still they surely are “acquired knowledge”. But for many other things the difference is not that neat: what about speaking? Our mother tongue sounds like an innate knowledge to us, we have no memories of learning it, however our brain, since the very first months of life, captured all the sounds of our native language. Maybe this brings us to believe that language is acquired knowledge, but it is also true that a group of people, even if living in complete isolation, will develop its own language. The ability of speaking is written in our DNA, it is innate. Here innate and acquired knowledge mix and the border between the two becomes confused. Another example can be found in religion: this is a very delicate and interesting matter. We usually practice the religion in which we grew up and this could lead us to believe it is actually acquired knowledge: but how do we explain the different religions existing since the most ancient times? Men, from every time, every place, had always felt the need of something transcendent that could explain mysterious phenomena as well as death. Is this knowledge and need innate in us and therefore inseparable from our human nature?

Riccardo Poggioli ha detto...

QUESTION NUMBER ONE

These four categories of human behaviours give us an overview on the complexity of the human nature. During my quite short life it happened that I was directly involved or I simply observed these four behaviours. In the daily life competition has assumed a fundamental role in our society, one example that comes in my mind is the competition between two companies like Apple and Samsung. This competition has double faced results one is positive the other is negative. The positive one is that the users could take advantage from that since these two brands always try to overcome each other with more advanced devices, and the customers have the possibility to choose between the best products available on the market. But on the negative side is that this fierce competition tends to exclude other companies that are not able to follow the rhythm of these two. Cooperation is another kind of behaviour; an example is when a group of people have the same goal and work together to reach it, a football team or any team sport can give the idea of that. Another human behaviour to analyze is reciprocity, when I think about that, it comes in my mind the portrait of a mother who help his/her sons in doing the homework. The last human behaviour is the revenge which is a peculiar feature of the human nature, a good example is when you were child as soon you received a tease which cause an immediate reaction caused by the instinct in order to respond immediately without thinking.

QUESTION NUMBER TWO

During the first class we learnt to distinguish two kinds of knowledge: innate and acquired one. Everyone since his birth has some innate knowledge. When we talk about innate knowledge we have to keep in mind that this kind of knowledge comes from the natural instinct. As newborns we have the instinct to make noise(sounds) and the result is weeping. And with the passing of time we learn that the sounds have a meaning and that can be used as a way to interact with other human beings, with the time passing by we are able to speak and communicate in a advanced way. What comes in mind is the attempt that every baby makes to walk, first with the crawling then with the passing of time babies manage to find the right equilibrium and get to stand up and at the end they succeed to walk Professor explained us what is the acquired knowledge, that is to say something that come from outside and it’s not within us, and with the passing of time it becomes part of us. The vast majority of the acquired knowledge comes from the school, since from the primary one, when we our teachers teach us how to write. Once you have learnt how to write, you get used to do it and you will never forget how to do it because it has become part of you. But I believe that the best example for the acquired knowledge is learning how to ride a bike. In fact here in Italy there is a famous proverb/saying which says that is impossible to forget how to ride a bike once you have learned it. Another type of knowledge that I consider important is cooking, that could be considered both innate and acquired since some people have the ability to cook within them and others have to spend a lot of time to learn how to do it in the proper way with only the practical aim to survival aim and to feed themselves.

Rebecca Biraschi ha detto...

QUESTION 1:
Usually people's actions can be looked at by taking into consideration four different ways of behave, which are typical of human beings. Take as example the events of two football players, who are team companions. Between the two there could be a relationship of competition, so that each player will play the match with the aim to be the "winner", the best player, and this would mean to eliminate the chances for the other player to do a good performance and to let him being the "loser". Otherwise, the two companions could decide to co-operate by making their talents available for the same purposes: to do a good performance, to win the match, and so to be both "winners". Another situation that may happen could be that during a match one of the players, instead of coming in with an assist that would have allowed the other player to score,with greediness decides in vane to attempt a goal. After few minutes a similar situation, but with roles reversed, appears, and the player who hadn't got the assist at the play before, will have his vengeance by not passing to his companion a ball that would have lead him to score a goal. Indeed, the player will try the kick, but as his companion he won't succeed. So, none of them will benefit from this behavior; nonE of them will score a goal. A last situation that may happen is that during a match one of the players comes in with a good assist for the other player letting him score a goal. Indeed, in the following play the player that has just scored thank to the assist of his companion will feel a sort of obligation, need, duty, to do the same his companion has done with him. From this behavior the players will have a reciprocal "gift" and help, doing a good performance.

QUESTION 2:
Every human beings has got knowledge, but where does it come from? there are two kinds of knowledge: innate knowledge and acquired knowledge. The first represents the 10% of humans' total knowledge, while the latter represents the remaining 90%.
The innate knowledge is something that is inside human beings since the moment they have been to life. It includes all the capacities and abilities that are instinctive of the human genre. This kind of knowledge is stored in our genes since our birth and has just to be activated. The innate knowledge concerns with the ability to breath, to cry, to laugh, to sneeze, to feel emotions (etc. etc.).
On the other side, there is the acquired knowledge, which in humans is particularly developed. In fact, this is a peculiar feature that makes us different from animals: we, as human beings, are biologically organized to learn. This knowledge concerns with all the abilities and capacities that we don't have until the moment in which they are presented to us from the "outside", and we get to know them. Part of this kind of knowledge are: the ability to walk, to speak languages, to read, to use computers, and culture as well.

However, it could be difficult to isolate the innate knowledge, because we tend to cover also the most basic instincts with a cultural "style". Indeed, we tend to apply an acquired dimension of knowledge to all our behaviors. For example, it is possible to analyze the different ways in which people breath: a football player breaths in a certain way, a yoga teacher in another one, a singer in a different one , and so on. However, all of them are doing the most natural and instinctive thing that humans do: they are breathing.
Moreover, it is common for us to lose the awareness of the acquisition of a certain ability, letting it to be part of a natural acquisition of learning, making it natural and spontaneous. Take as example the ability to speak. We have learned it, because we aren't born with this ability. It is an acquired ability, however, we take it as natural.

clara saglietti ha detto...

Question 1:
“The only way for me to be human is for you to reflect my humanity back at me” said the Nigerian writer Chris Abani discussing the meaning of Ubuntu. It is considered an ethic or humanist philosophy based on the idea of reciprocity as its literal translation is “I am because we are” and its practical applications are shown in a shared and gift economy, a spontaneous generosity and hospitality towards everyone, a high social degree of interdependence and cooperation.
The latter is fundamental for the evolution of all species and in particular for human kind according to the anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin. In his essay “The mutual aid”, he gives examples of how savages from different parts of the world used to support each other, putting together resources and expertise so that every member of the tribe could benefit from prosperity and receive help in difficult moments. Furthermore, in many of these tribes, the mechanism of revenge, opposite to the concept of cooperation, was avoided when possible. The blood revenge, in fact, was often related to a chain of negative events, involving other innocents, with consequences much heavier than the original offense. That is why they developed a system of compensation still used in Ubuntu practices: the offender is punished by the law and therefore a sort of revenge is exerted, but at the same time the relatives of the victim receive gifts by the other family and by the community to consolidate the solidarity net. In this way, it is possible to pass from a lose-lose situation to a zero-sum game, as both the relatives and the tribe manage to benefit somehow after the lost.
Similarly, we can try to transform competition from a zero-sum game to a win-win situation, considering competition with ourselves. When two individuals compete, there is necessarily a winner and a loser, but when we compete with ourselves, the loser is simply the “we of the past” and the outcome is the overcoming of a precedent limit or a personal improvement.

clara saglietti ha detto...

Question 2:
There has always been a debate among philosophers supporting empiricism and innatism. The first ones, like Locke, argue that the mind is like a “blank slate” and knowledge is developed thanks to experience and through senses. The second ones, starting from Plato’s ideas acquired in the Hyperuranion, think that there are already knowledge and beliefs at the moment of the birth. In particular, some modern psychologists have developed the theory of nativism, according to which some skills are rooted in the mind and therefore can be considered “native” abilities. For example, Noam Chomsky wrote that the peculiar ability of humans, the communication using language, is due to specialised genetically inherited psychological abilities defined cognitive modules that allow children to develop that skill. However, it must be considered a predisposition towards the ability of speaking as none inherits it without a social context that helps its development. The same thing can be said for other unique human characteristics like the erect posture and the ability of walking.
From such perspective, it is difficult to find a kind of knowledge that is purely human and is shown without the influence of someone else. What distinguishes humans from other animals is precisely such a high ability of learning from others. This aspect with an elevate sociability and empathy explains the development of complex societies and why culture manage to affect also instinctive or spontaneous behaviours related to the basic physiological needs and to the manifestation of emotions. It is the case, for example, of different ways of showing emotions, repressing or manifesting sexual instincts, speaking, eating and so on.
In fact, a very important distinction is among instinct, behaviours and knowledge. Innate behaviour or instinct is the inherent inclination towards a complex behaviour and is not a skill acquired through education or experience. Animals may have very specific instincts, like baby sea turtles that move from the sand to the sea, but only men, that apparently do not have a peculiar behaviour, can learn so many things and modify instinct with culture. Therefore, it is very difficult to detect innate knowledge and behaviours from acquired ones in the case of humans.

Selene G. ha detto...

Regarding the first Question a few options of situations came into my mind. I decided though to make it a bit personal and refer it to the talk I had with my dad at dinner tonight. He has just started a new position in the company he is working for and his management style is very different then of the previous people. He personally believes; the working atmosphere needs to be relaxed and a place where people feel save. From this cooperation both he as a boss gets better results from his workers who work faster and they come to work with joy. But there are people who criticize this way of management and think it creates an atmosphere were people can get the feeling they don´t need to work. In their eyes competition is important where workers need to feel that they could loos privileges or even their job if they don´t preform the necessary work load. The worst situation for the company would be if a worker feels he is being treated bad by his boss and then works poorly or even not at all. This way of revenge would probably mean a big damage for the company and for both worker and the boss. The end of the conversation with my dad was about ideas he wants to bring into the new job field and one was a day for everyone, at a congress center to talk about management styles, the company and my dad would probably not get much out of this. But the workers and different department would profit a lot from this reciprocity behavior.


What features are we born with and what is really taught to us is always a very interesting question and comes to my mind again when I read Question 2. I have asked myself a lot how much of me is just the upbringing of my parents and how much is me from the beginning. This is also interesting when we look at innate and acquired knowledge, how much does every human being know and what do we learn through our experiences and our own life’s. There are many interesting experiences about this but if we leave a baby in a room alone it will die, although it might be born with the knowledge to walk, talk and eat. It will not be able to use this knowledge until it has experienced it in real life and been stimulated to do so. In class we talked about acquired knowledge being part of our culture but I ask myself is taste completely acquired or also innate. Are there people who are just born with not liking certain foods? I have been a vegetarian for 11 years now and I can not say why. I was not raised without meat, neither was it ever talked bad about it. Is there an innate that we are born with, which we can change due to our acquired knowledge from our surrounding? I think its hard to draw a line here and there is a little bit of both. But the acquired and cultural part will certainly play a major role and their won´t be many Latin Americans who don´t like rice with beans and Italians who don´t like pasta.

Selene G. ha detto...

Regarding the first Question a few options of situations came into my mind. I decided though to make it a bit personal and refer it to the talk I had with my dad at dinner tonight. He has just started a new position in the company he is working for and his management style is very different than of the previous people. He personally believes; the working atmosphere needs to be relaxed and a place where people feel save. From this cooperation both he as a boss gets better results from his workers who work faster and they come to work with joy. But there are people who criticize this way of management and think it creates an atmosphere where people can get the feeling they don´t need to work. In their eyes competition is important where workers need to feel that they could loos privileges or even their job if they don´t preform the necessary work load. The worst situation for the company would be if a worker feels he is being treated bad by his boss and then works poorly or even not at all. This way of revenge would probably mean a big damage for the company and for both worker and the boss. The end of the conversation with my dad was about ideas he wants to bring into the new job field and one was a day for everyone, at a congress center to talk about management styles, the company and my dad would probably not get much out of this. But the workers and different department would profit a lot from this reciprocity behavior.


What features are we born with and what is really taught to us is always a very interesting question and comes to my mind again when I read Question 2. I have asked myself a lot how much of me is just the upbringing of my parents and how much is me from the beginning. This is also interesting when we look at innate and acquired knowledge, how much does every human being know and what do we learn through our experiences and our own life’s. There are many interesting experiences about this but if we leave a baby in a room alone it will die, although it might be born with the knowledge to walk, talk and eat. It will not be able to use this knowledge until it has experienced it in real life and been stimulated to do so. In class we talked about acquired knowledge being part of our culture but I ask myself is taste completely acquired or also innate. Are there people who are just born with not liking certain foods? I have been a vegetarian for 11 years now and I can not say why. I was not raised without meat, neither was it ever talked bad about it. Is there an innate that we are born with, which we can change due to our acquired knowledge from our surrounding? I think its hard to draw a line here and there is a little bit of both. But the acquired and cultural part will certainly play a major role and their won´t be many Latin Americans who don´t like rice with beans and Italians who don´t like pasta.

Shahmar Hasanov ha detto...

QUESTION 1
1) Competition – it remains in each of us. The necessity to do something better than your potential and current opponent, in order to have greater rewards. Applications of this phenomena are various and widely used.
2) Cooperation – is the essence of the harmonic existence and sustainable development. For mutual benefits and higher results people tend to work together. There is even famous proverb from Russian language which says: “One hand is good, two is better”.
3) Reciprocity – actually is a little harder to acknowledge and everyone has different evaluation of it. It occurs when someone treats you nice or does you some good, and you feel the importance of repaying him back in a same manner.
4) Revenge – is the creation of subjective justice. It’s indeed strong concept and might have disastrous consequences. The idea is extremely broad in applications and scales. Everyone has their own justice.

The social behaviors above mentioned might seem easy to comprehend, however explaining them is not an easy task at all. I take the most convenient example for me to describe them in the most possibly understandable way – by analyzing football match:
1. Before the start of the game, all players of the team want to take part in the game. Logically, they work really hard to be assigned to the upcoming match, to be more deserved than their partners. In this situation, they’re opponents of each other before the match and that is the pure competition.
2. In order to win the match, the team should act as one and cooperate during the game (passing the ball, helping to defenders and so forth). No matter how many talented players you have, if there is no team chemistry, the chances of success are low.
3. For reciprocity we need to consider certain moments of the match. The player named Mark passes the ball to the player named John, and John scores (Mark made an assist). Later on same team earns a penalty and John gives the chance of scoring to Mark. And both of them feel satisfied.
4. Let’s in the end look at the cruel moment of football game. Some player from the rival team made a harsh tackle against our hero – Mark. Mark thinks the tackle was unnecessary and too dangerous. So he decides to take revenge and makes even vicious tackle. Mark gets red card.

QUESTION 2
Ironically, I was thinking about the skill we have which is hard to categorize as innate or acquired, and I figured out that thinking is the perfect example for the case. It’s still under the question, do we think in a particular way because of the environment, circumstances and conjectures or we have inherited the manner of thinking from our previous generations? In my personal opinion, thinking is the acquired skill, based on the quantity and quality of what individual have red and experienced. However, a lot of times persons who read the same source of information might give completely different interpretation. So it’s not that sure as it seems.
Another example is our taste receptors. We all like various things to eat. I was always wondering, do I like certain type of food because I’m so used to it or it’s really good? By trying the cuisines of different countries and cultures, I realized that there are some food in foreign places which I like even more than my national food. Consequently, I would say it’s mostly acquired, but some innate features also do exist.
In the end, I would also mention crying (in tears) which is innate, nonetheless still consists acquired concepts, from my standpoint of view. Considering the ideas of many cultures, men mostly are not allowed to cry, despite the fact that crying is almost the same as laughing. While women do it more often. Logically, each individual has his/her way and regularity of crying, depending how he/she was raised.

Sonia Matera ha detto...

QUESTION 1

One can distinguish among four types of human behaviour: competition, cooperation, reciprocity and revenge. According to the situation and to the subjects that interact, it is possible to analyse one of this behaviours and its consequences.
For instance, one can imagine two colleagues, workers A and B, that share the same interest in looking good in front of their boss.
- If they compete, worker A will have more visibility at the expenses of worker B and the boss may decide to give a promotion to one and to fire the other. Therefore, there will be a winner and a looser. Worker A will have all the benefits leaving anything for worker B.
- On the contrary, if workers A and B decide to take the root of cooperation, the final outcome will be very different. In fact, both the employees will have a good visibility in front of their boss who may decide to keep them not giving promotions and dismissals. As a consequence, both of the colleagues gain something (win-win situation).
- In the case of reciprocity, worker A may decide to help worker B in getting visibility because this one helped him in getting the job. This is a typical human behaviour that one can observe clearly in daily life which implies faith and trust between the subjects.
- Finally, one can suppose that there is a situation of revenge between the employees. For example, worker A may decide to tell his or her boss that worker B is not having the right attitude at work and is not respecting the other colleagues. In this case the boss may decide to fire both the workers or to take a decision that penalises both of them (loose-loose situation).

QUESTION 2

Human knowledge can be distinguished between innate and acquired.
The first one is the knowledge humans were born with. On the contrary, the second is the one we acquired and “learnt” thanks to stimulus activated by the society.
It is very tricky to make examples of this two types of knowledge because we are not aware of what is innate and what is acquired. However, it can be useful to think about the distinctions between animals and human beings. In fact, animals have a very big share of innate knowledge in contrast with humans whose knowledge is, in most of the cases, acquired.
For instance, one can think of swimming. In this case, the capacity of movement is innate and we acquired the capacity of swimming thanks to society. If a kid does not have swimming classes, he or she will not be able to swim in the ocean.
Another example is represented by speaking a language. The capacity of talking is innate but we acquired the language thanks to stimuli.
However, there are other situations where the distinction is very difficult to detect.
One can think of personality, some kids can be more aggressive while others more calm and sensible. Is this acquired or innate?
What about emotions such as love or fear? Are them innate or acquired?
As one can imagine, it is a very complicated area of study with many examples that can be done and think about.

Unknown ha detto...

Question 1: Report one example for each type of social behavior.

In class, the model of basic behavioral patterns for human was elaborated and we saw that it can be divided in four types: Competition, Cooperation, Reciprocity and Revenge.

In order to illustrate the two first types of basic behavioral patterns, let’s take the example of two managers of two competing companies, A. Inc. and B Inc., operating both in the car industry.

Competition

As studied in class, competition can be defined by a 0-sum game which means that there are, on one side, the winners and, on the other, the losers. Regarding our examples, the situation is relatively easy to understand. In fact, both managers want to dominate the market and are keen to make important sacrifices to achieve their goals. We can imagine that the company A Inc. wins finally the competition, while B. Inc. collapses.

Cooperation

On the other hand, both managers may have the idea to cooperate, for instance through a common project of research and development in order to reduce their costs. Indeed, while competition leads to 0-sum game, cooperation, on the contrary, is a win-win game in which every participant wins. We can thus assume that both companies will benefit from this cooperation by having an advantage on the market in comparison to other car companies. This situation will lead to higher profits for both companies. It is to notice that A. Inc. would probably earn more money in the competition situation than here, but the cooperation is a much safer behavior in the fact that there are no losers.

Reciprocity

We saw during the previous lesson that reciprocity could be described as a way of circulating goods and services outside the market law. The two extreme forms of reciprocity are general and negative. Between these two extremes, we can find different kind of balanced reciprocity. Using the situation with the two managers again, we can take the following example: A Inc.’s manager offers to B Inc.’s manager a valuable information concerning a new law that could be adopted by the authorities soon and drastically change the car industry and affect their respective businesses. By doing this, A Inc.’s manager expects B Inc.’s manager to act in the same way if he had such a valuable information in the future. In a certain way, B Inc.’s manager has now the duty towards A Inc.’s manager to give him valuable information in case he possesses some one day. This duty can be thus seen as balanced reciprocity.

Revenge

Revenge is the social behavior when an individual wants to damage the person who damaged him. It can be seen as a bad compensation for the damage someone caused. In the situation of the two managers, we take the same example as used previously: the valuable information. Let now assume that, instead of having shared this information, A Inc.’s manager kept it for himself. B Inc.’s manager learned that and the day he receives a similar information, he does the same as the other one, he keeps for him and the interest of his company. They are thus in a situation of no winners because they both could have been in a much better situation if they have shared this information. Indeed, there are only losers at the end of the game.

Nicolas Dietrich

Nicolas Dietrich ha detto...

Question 2: List innate and acquired forms of human knowledge. More important, bring examples where the distinction is blurred and not clear at all.

In class, the concept of culture has been debated and we finally came with this definition: culture is every form of knowledge that individuals acquire over time, but naturalized. Culture can thus be considered as the acquired knowledge, which is the opposite to innate knowledge i.e. the knowledge the individuals have in their genes, the knowledge that they are born with. Naturalized means that it is an informal acquirement of knowledge i.e. the individual is not aware of this learning process.

In fact, what really differs humans from animals is their relatively low percentage of innate knowledge (10% vs 90% for the animals according the course). Indeed, humans are characterized by their learning ability.

After having defined these two concepts, it is relatively simple to give some examples for acquired knowledges. In fact, a new language, for instance French, learned by a student can be easily understood as an acquired language. Another one could be learning to calculate, to do mathematics. On the other hand, it’s more difficult to give a concrete example of innate knowledge. In fact, the bounder between innate and acquired knowledge is really vague. We are actually all born with some predispositions for specific things. For example, it is deeply embedded in human genes that he has the possibility to emit a wide range of sounds. Nevertheless, it must be in a social group to learn how to express them.

A good example in which the distinction is blurred and not clear at all is the fear. Indeed, we are all born with fear. Each individual, regardless the age and the amount of acquired knowledge, has experienced the feeling of being afraid. Fear is part of the human instincts and can from this point of view be regarded as an innate knowledge. On the other hand, fear can be controlled by the individual depending on his background. In fact, not everybody deals in the same way when he is confronted to the fear. This ability is an integral part of the acquired knowledge. We have thus seen so far that the bounder between these two concepts is vague and it’s hard to define the contours.

Nicolas Dietrich

Nicolas Dietrich ha detto...

Question 2: List innate and acquired forms of human knowledge. More important, bring examples where the distinction is blurred and not clear at all.

In class, the concept of culture has been debated and we finally came with this definition: culture is every form of knowledge that individuals acquire over time, but naturalized. Culture can thus be considered as the acquired knowledge, which is the opposite to innate knowledge i.e. the knowledge the individuals have in their genes, the knowledge that they are born with. Naturalized means that it is an informal acquirement of knowledge i.e. the individual is not aware of this learning process.

In fact, what really differs humans from animals is their relatively low percentage of innate knowledge (10% vs 90% for the animals according the course). Indeed, humans are characterized by their learning ability.

After having defined these two concepts, it is relatively simple to give some examples for acquired knowledges. In fact, a new language, for instance French, learned by a student can be easily understood as an acquired language. Another one could be learning to calculate, to do mathematics. On the other hand, it’s more difficult to give a concrete example of innate knowledge. In fact, the bounder between innate and acquired knowledge is really vague. We are actually all born with some predispositions for specific things. For example, it is deeply embedded in human genes that he has the possibility to emit a wide range of sounds. Nevertheless, it must be in a social group to learn how to express them.

A good example in which the distinction is blurred and not clear at all is the fear. Indeed, we are all born with fear. Each individual, regardless the age and the amount of acquired knowledge, has experienced the feeling of being afraid. Fear is part of the human instincts and can from this point of view be regarded as an innate knowledge. On the other hand, fear can be controlled by the individual depending on his background. In fact, not everybody deals in the same way when he is confronted to the fear. This ability is an integral part of the acquired knowledge. We have thus seen so far that the bounder between these two concepts is vague and it’s hard to define the contours.

Nicolas Dietrich

Lu ha detto...

Report one example for each type of social behavior:

Competition: a professional boxer only has a limited amount of fights in his career. He, like all other professional athletes, spends an excessive amount of time preparing for one “competition”. A fight/match is not only about the money you win as a price for the competition but also about the pride of being physically stronger than your opponent and winning after physically draining yourself. People can have the trademark of being very competitive which is a blessing and a curse.

Cooperation: Difficult situations can cause unlikely people to work together and are often even perceived as bonding-experiences. One example I read quite a bit about in German news are hiking accidents in the Alps. If a hiker has an accident and falls they are often difficult to reach and require someone to climb down, secured by another person. No ambulance can reach them so they have to transport the injured person to a place where either a helicopter can pick them up or if possible down to the valley. Without cooperation a rescue would most likely be impossible. Cooperation usually involves trust, because you have to rely on your partner to do his part of the work.

Revenge: There’s a German saying which roughly translates to: “As you did to me, I do to you”. It is a theme often explored in literature like in Romeo & Juliet. It can cloud one’s judgement and cause someone to make regrettable decisions. Mercutio, Romeo’s friend is killed by Tybalt, Juliet’s cousin in a duel. Romeo decides to avenge Mercutio by killing Tybalt and as a consequence gets banished from Verona which aided to the demise of the “star-crossed lovers”.

Reciprocity: If you do someone a favor, like pick them up from the airport, there is an unspoken pressure from both sides to “return the favor” or at least to bring a gift as a thank you. An individual can get the feeling of “being used” if they repeatedly do favors for a person without it being reciprocated. Some animals also show signs of reciprocity. Bats have a food-sharing system where they regurgitate blood to ensure other members of the colony which are sick or didn’t manage to find food get something to eat. They know that this process will be repeated for them if they ever get into this situation.

2nd Question:
Innate knowledge is knowledge that we are “born” with, that lies within our genes and is recalled subconsciously whenever we need it. Some examples are things like, breathing, hiccups, digestion and swallowing.
Acquired knowledge are things, as the name already says, that we acquire over time as we develop and that we learn from external stimuli, like learning how to play an instrument, studying at university, reading the news, learning how to speak, etc.

One example where it is difficult to determine whether the knowledge is innate or acquired could be taste. When we eat food, we can all taste the different components like sweet, salty and bitter. The development of different cuisines had an influence on the diet of individuals who can tolerate things like spicy food on different levels. There are also jobs/skills which require you to develop your taste further to be able to distinguish the different flavors properly. Wine-makers have to be able to distinguish the different notes in a grape to understand how to create new wine.

emmanuel Krah Plarhar ha detto...

QUESTION 1

Cooperation involves teamwork, mutual understanding and support. My partner and I have an organization to run and in order to succeed we need to help each other. As said in class, the outcome of cooperation is either win or loses so in order to make the best out of it we need to cooperate.
Competition also involves race, challenge, contest, strife etc. when two people compete with each other one wins and the other loses. Let’s take American Idol for instance, it being a singing competition, many individuals compete with each other because at the latter part the winner walks away with a grand price so everyone does everything he or she can to win because it is a challenge.
Revenge is mostly seen to be negative. It involves one getting hurt at the end. As a history student I would use Julius Caesar as an example of revenge. When he was captured by pirates he made them aware that he would definitely crucify them. When his ransom was paid he raised a fleet, captured the pirates and crucified them.
Reciprocity involves a give and take process. A typical example; I go for lunch and see a friend hungry without money and I decide to buy him or her lunch. The next day or weeks later he or she also decides to buy me lunch or even something more precious.

QUESTION 2

As revealed in class, human knowledge is classified according innate and acquired. Humans are born with certain ideas or knowledge that they develop as they grow. Taking innate knowledge into consideration, it is the natural knowledge which is already part of man. Innate knowledge is encoded into the human DNA. It is genetic. It is the basic human instinct (Survival Instinct). Let’s take sleep as an example, who teaches a child or a mammal how to sleep, nobody does. The child just sleeps when he or she feels sleepy. Also looking at hunger, one must not learn to feel hungry before he or she finds something to eat. It is natural because animals already have that knowledge. Looking at adrenaline response to danger, no one tells an animal especially man to move away when dander is approaching. Animal learning how to walk is also part of them. As said in class, innate knowledge is difficult to isolate.
Acquired knowledge on the other hand is studied. One must know how to do something specific by learning it. This kind of knowledge isn’t encoded in the human DNA but it must be gained. For one to know how to drive a car, that individual must learn the basics, learn the signs and master it before driving the car. For an individual for learn another language, that person must study the language in order to master it. Humans have more acquired knowledge than innate knowledge. Humans learn more because they want to know more, that how humans were designed.

Claudia Schiavelli ha detto...

1)
We usually say that human beings all differ one from the other, but I think a step forward to understand human behaviors it to deny such affirmation and focus on the fact that, most of the times, we all react in the same way to some stimuli, since we are all humans.
Following such generalization, we can name some cases in which most of the people would act exactly equally. Competition happens when two people want the same thing at the same time. Two siblings having to decide which one will take the biggest room and choose by playing rock, paper, scissors; which leaves the competition fair and entirely based on luck.
Cooperation is when two siblings want something which will benefit both of them and to which their parents are against to. Only one of them already asked and was answered a sharp no. The second one goes asking and receives a maybe. The two decide to go ask together and receive a yes.
One of the siblings acts out of revenge because the other broke something of his and breaks something else belonging to the other. They both end up having something broken.
Reciprocity could be seen when one of the two siblings has done something wrong and the other covers it up for him not to get caught by their parents. They both know the other's got his back.

2)
To me, innate knowledge, by far, has much to do with physiological and instinctive behaviors.
Scratching a part of the body that itches is innate, is something we cannot help. But there are many things that an individual can't tolerate and needs to respond to as its body commands while someone else has such an impulse under control. That's not much a matter of stamina but more of a habitude we unconsciously developed at some point.
Something that falls into acquired knowledge and we might not think immediately about it as that way is the dosage of our force. Usually, children tend to be rough when petting animals and would keep doing it until they are told that actually hurts them.
Misophonia ("the hatred of sounds") is an interesting case because it is not either a hearing or a psychiatric disorder but an odd combination of sounds and emotions. The sound of one chewing with his mouth open can bother someone more than someone else, either because s/he connects it with a negative emotion that s/he previously experienced or to a parental teaching to avoid such a behavior. Therefore, the majority of our behaviors can be explained through our history: the things we have seen, what we have been told and what we are completely new to. Such an action explains itself the difficulty to isolate our innate from the acquired knowledge we possess.

Federica Barbera ha detto...

Question 1
Once I read that human beings act according to four main reasons which are love, their creed , fear and vengeance. It was interesting that during the first lesson of anthropology of globalization I found a parallelism between those ones and the social behaviors of human kind. In this supplementary reflection I would like to start from competition because I think that it reflects better the contemporary society that resembles a wild environment in which rule the concept of the survival of the fittest. Moreover competition belongs to different categories of people from children, who live this reality through games, to old employees . I do believe that in many workplaces such as big companies or entrepreneurs’ activities this is the prevalent social behavior that we can observe. It is not uncommon seeing employees competing for the same position and therefore fighting to achieve that goal with all the possible means. “Eat or be eaten” will be the perfect caption for this example. We can say that the opposite of competition is instead cooperation meaning that two or more individuals work together to reach the same target. I think that there is no better example than team working in which skills and knowledge are shared and not hidden. At this point when we introduced reciprocity and revenge and I have immediately associated this two with love and vengeance. I would like you to visualize reciprocity as a circular flow in which everything you give must be given back therefore creating a self-generating circle. After that we mentioned also the notion of “gift” bringing as example charity organization but I disagree on the statement that says that those people fall in a different category than reciprocity because many people are used to say that when you donate you always receive something back that maybe is not material but enrich you in the same way. Finally we approach to the more selfish social interaction which is revenge. At this point there is no 0-sum game, no winner or loser and no benefits can be obtained even if it might seem so. When something is taken away from you, it may happen that you want it back appealing to justice. In fact what courts of justice do is finding the right punishment to pay you back( sometimes even literally) for what you lost. At the end nobody is a winner because both are damaged.

Federica Barbera ha detto...

Question 1
Once I read that human beings act according to four main reasons which are love, their creed , fear and vengeance. It was interesting that during the first lesson of anthropology of globalization I found a parallelism between those ones and the social behaviors of human kind. In this supplementary reflection I would like to start from competition because I think that it reflects better the contemporary society that resembles a wild environment in which rule the concept of the survival of the fittest. Moreover competition belongs to different categories of people from children, who live this reality through games, to old employees . I do believe that in many workplaces such as big companies or entrepreneurs’ activities this is the prevalent social behavior that we can observe. It is not uncommon seeing employees competing for the same position and therefore fighting to achieve that goal with all the possible means. “Eat or be eaten” will be the perfect caption for this example. We can say that the opposite of competition is instead cooperation meaning that two or more individuals work together to reach the same target. I think that there is no better example than team working in which skills and knowledge are shared and not hidden. At this point when we introduced reciprocity and revenge and I have immediately associated this two with love and vengeance. I would like you to visualize reciprocity as a circular flow in which everything you give must be given back therefore creating a self-generating circle. After that we mentioned also the notion of “gift” bringing as example charity organization but I disagree on the statement that says that those people fall in a different category than reciprocity because many people are used to say that when you donate you always receive something back that maybe is not material but enrich you in the same way. Finally we approach to the more selfish social interaction which is revenge. At this point there is no 0-sum game, no winner or loser and no benefits can be obtained even if it might seem so. When something is taken away from you, it may happen that you want it back appealing to justice. In fact what courts of justice do is finding the right punishment to pay you back( sometimes even literally) for what you lost. At the end nobody is a winner because both are damaged.

Federica Barbera ha detto...

Question 2
The difference between innate knowledge and acquired knowledge at first seemed to be clear and precise. However we learned how those two can be confused very easily. When I think to innate knowledge in human beings I always refer to all those activities that since the day of our birth we can do. I am referring to breathing, vocal emission and basic perception of the environment around us. However I would like to bring as an example a medical observed behavior of the newborn called breast crawl in which the baby reaches the mother’s breast without any help following only his natural instinct guided by smells and hormones. Another example is the sucking reflex that is present at birth in all mammals. On the contrary almost everything we can do is an acquired knowledge such as the language, that our brain assimilates in the first months of life, and even standing. I have always though that walking is an acquired knowledge but I have discovered that we have in our genes the potential capacity but it will be activated only with the presence of society. Also language at birth is a potential skill, in fact I remember having read that once you skip the phase in which you can learn to speak you will never be able to do that such as it happened to those kids raised in the jungle. When the time comes to analyze feelings and emotions I think that the two categories might be mixed up. Is love or hate an innate knowledge? Do we learn how to feel emotions or it is a potential skill? All this questions make us naturalize feelings but I do believe that culture and education have shaped our emotional sphere using an informal way of teaching and that is the reason why we think that it has been with us since the day we were born. I think that doing this type of analysis , even in its simplest form, will later allow us to elaborate deepest reflections and so elaborate an useful anthropological method.

Ilaria Miligi ha detto...

Question 1: The first example that comes into my mind according to the competitive social behaviour is a case in which people decide to compete in order to demonstrate that the first can exceed the other one, and they don't work in the sense of collaboration, instead they're struggling against each other, and the one doesn't care much about the other, which simply became a rival. Competition has thousand of shades, and sometimes it could exist an helthy competition, in which both the parts through this competition, improve their own condition. We can find the competitive behavior in the field of school or university, at work, when for instance two colleagues compete to gain a special job, and they only see their personal objective.

Cooperation is a collective way of social behavior: in this case individuals cooperate together, working in the same direction in order to reach the same objective. A film bumps immediately into my mind, because is rooted and focused on a situation that could be faced with a cooperative spirit. The name is "Two Days, One night", from Dardenne brothers. Here an employee has to be dismissed, and the only possibility he has dwells in the others. If the other colleagues agree on renouncing to a portion of their income, he won't be dismissed, and these colleagues decide to collaborate in order to save the other which risks to lose his job. I think that this is a case in which cooperation could be fundamental.
Nobody wanted to accept to renounce to a portion of their personal income, since everybody needs that money, but this is a special situation in which everybody could have renounced to a 'portion' in order to make the other saving the 'all' (the job). I personally think that this is a particular form of cooperation, since it involves here the renounce too.

Reciprocity is a 'system of gifts' and especially practical examples about daily life bump into my mind. The principle that lays down reciprocity is that "I give you something, but at the same moment you give me something too." Suppose that there are two friends and the one has some difficulties at school but is really good at sports, while the other one is really excellent at studying and not so good in sports. This two friends could establish a reciprocal relationship, the one helping the other, in the field he's better, and viceversa.

Revenge is the worst way of establishing a social behaviour. In the idea of revenge lay down the idea of envy. Suppose that there are two persons, the first is really and truly admired and estimated from colleagues and friends for his qualities, skills and abilities. The other person has of course his own skills and qualities, but because of his envy towards the first one, he starts continue revenges. He tries to deceive him, with the objective of wasting his reputation in the working field and of wasting his friendships. Instead of admiring him for his qualities and trying to learn something from someone which is admired and estimate, this person decides to face it in the most unuseful way.

Question 2: In class we discussed about form of innate knowledge which we elaborate with our acquired knowledge, and the distinction could be blurred and unclear. If I think about emotions, I would say that emotions are forms of innate knowledge, because the whole humanity can feel joy, affection, love, sadness, but here our acquired knowledge could change the way we use in the expressions of our emotions. So we all feel the same emotions, since they are part of our innate knowledge, but the way of expressing them could be different from person to person, according to the personal acquired knowledge.

gloria paronitti ha detto...

QUESTION 1: In class we have talked about the 4 basic behavioral patterns in which human beings engage to relate with each others. I thought to some examples from the world of politics. Usually in this context we do not speak only about dynamics that arises between individuals but also between groups, which themselves are characterized by people's actions and interactions, so I think this can however be a good example.
COOPERATION: It can happen that two different political parties cooperate to make a law pass. Usually those two political parties are opposed, but they understand that in order to satisfy an important social need cooperation is needed.
COMPETITION: As we have just said, political parties compete one against the other, since they happen to have different visions or follow different leaders. This competition became even more evident in the case of elections, when a party's candidate try to prevail on another opposite party's candidate.
REVENGE: History has reported lots of political revenges, but let's simply think about one party's member voting against his own party, for example when he doesn't agree on a law his party is supporting.
RECIPROCITY: This is the most complex behavioral patterns to analyze when we think about politics. We said in class that three different kinds of reciprocity exist: one that is generally good and doesn't ask for nothing in return, like the one a mother can have with her child. Then we have the balanced one, classified as a "system of gifts". The last one is the negative form of reciprocity that is equal to pure stealing. In my opinion the first and third cases can't be classified as reciprocity, since one of the person involved in the exchange is the passive object and he is not supposed to act. I would instead define as reciprocity only the second case. The strange fact is that this concept has always meant to me something positive. Instead I figured out that in politics reciprocity can become corruption. This is why for me selfless reciprocity doesn't exists, exception made for people bound by relationships based on love or trust.

gloria paronitti ha detto...

QUESTION 1: In class we have talked about the 4 basic behavioral patterns in which human beings engage to relate with each others. I thought to some examples from the world of politics. Usually in this context we do not speak only about dynamics that arises between individuals but also between groups, which themselves are characterized by people's actions and interactions, so I think this can however be a good example.
COOPERATION: It can happen that two different political parties cooperate to make a law pass. Usually those two political parties are opposed, but they understand that in order to satisfy an important social need cooperation is needed.
COMPETITION: As we have just said, political parties compete one against the other, since they happen to have different visions or follow different leaders. This competition became even more evident in the case of elections, when a party's candidate try to prevail on another opposite party's candidate.
REVENGE: History has reported lots of political revenges, but let's simply think about one party's member voting against his own party, for example when he doesn't agree on a law his party is supporting.
RECIPROCITY: This is the most complex behavioral patterns to analyze when we think about politics. We said in class that three different kinds of reciprocity exist: one that is generally good and doesn't ask for nothing in return, like the one a mother can have with her child. Then we have the balanced one, classified as a "system of gifts". The last one is the negative form of reciprocity that is equal to pure stealing. In my opinion the first and third cases can't be classified as reciprocity, since one of the person involved in the exchange is the passive object and he is not supposed to act. I would instead define as reciprocity only the second case. The strange fact is that this concept has always meant to me something positive. Instead I figured out that in politics reciprocity can become corruption. This is why for me selfless reciprocity doesn't exists, exception made for people bound by relationships based on love or trust.

gloria paronitti ha detto...

QUESTION 2: Probably mine is not a correct answer, it is more a personal thought and consideration that I want to share. When I was asking me this question, I tried to find out what in my opinion is at the root of human actions, starting from the simplest ones. I know it is impossible, but let's try to think about a man, alone, without any social relation and without any kind of knowledge apart from basic bodily functions as breathing, moving, blood circulation and everything else. Maybe this man will try to find something to eat or drink. This is defined as instinct. But what is leading instinct? Probably something that this man is still not capable to understand, something that he will realize later in his growing process: "the need" or "necessity". To eat, in fact, can be seen as a baby's instinct or as an intrinsic and still not realized consciousness that makes its way inside us. It does it first unconsciously, then it flows out as we grow up, being finally clear. For this I think we can think at the concept of "need" as innate. It is thanks to it that we found out how to satisfy our "primary necessities": eating, communicating, drinking or protecting us from cold. The really first way we tried to do it is culture at an early stage. Then complexity comes in, thanks to our awareness we are now ready to satisfy "secondary necessities", developing even further culture or acquired knowledge: from the necessity of feeding ourselves, human beings have started to hunt (primary stage of culture); now we have different ways to get the food, we know agriculture, we started to create recipes or we write books about this topic, for example. This is a more complex level of culture, that is always a human creation, but at the same time the creation of a man that is now aware and knows how to satisfy his primary needs, so he is creating other needs more or less important to be satisfied. All this long process has its root on the "primary level of culture" and even before on our unconscious awareness of necessity.

ALICE97 ha detto...

QUESTION 1:
The first thing that comes into my mind when thinking of competition is sport, tennis for example. Two athletes competing one against the other to win the match. Obviously as soon as one wins the two sets, the other automatically loses, so each of them has to do its best in order to be better than his opponent. Sometimes, when competition is meant in a wrong way, so not exactly sportsmanlike, can also become revenge. Tennis player n.1 feels still bitter for his loss since the last match against tennis player n.2. Tennis player n.2 plays an offensive shot and approaches to the net to close the point, but n.1 aims exactly at his face with all his strength, so n.2 has to parry that shot or might hurt himself.
If we consider a competition that involves teams, like volleyball, the players of the same team will have to cooperate and help each other in order to win against the other team.
Having played in a tennis team for many years, I realized that between ourselves there was a sort of reciprocity, especially during trainings. Each of us had to win her own single match in order to get one point to the team. While we were practicing for example for strengthening a certain shot and one of us was not as good as the others at it, we would waist more time on practicing more that particular shot so that she could get better at it. We knew that anytime someone else would have had a weak point, all of us would work on it to improve it, in order to be all at the same level.


QUESTION 2:
During this lecture we distinguished between acquired and innate knowledge. With innate knowledge we refer to all that embodied knowledge that is a characteristic that a living being is endowed with since its birth, so all that natural/biological knowledge. Therefore, the idea is opposed to the empiricist John Locke doctrine, which endorsed the idea that mind is a blank slate (tabula rasa) at birth. An example could be all out basic physiological needs. Human being is biologically organized to learn. All that knowledge that is “new” to us, so that we get to know through everyday life, that is what we identified as acquired knowledge. An example could be playing a sport or speaking a foreign language. This distinction is not always so clear. We usually tend to cover many aspects of our innate knowledge with a cultural style, so that it looks like we have an acquired dimension of all our behaviors. Moreover, the majority of our acquired knowledge tends to get naturalized up to the point it becomes spontaneous, so that it is something learned about which we lost the awareness of its acquisition. A controversial example could be emotions. In my opinion our brain is surely predisposed to perceive emotions, but we only get to know them through experience in order to feel them. Another confusing example that comes to my mind is singing. We are all able to sign, meaning that we are all able to emit sounds in a more or less melodic way, but being actually able to sign well is a skill that could be acquired with time and practice.

JINGYUAN LI ha detto...

Question 1:
Cooperation:
The representative cooperation can be found in the process of producing iPhone. The APPLE company collaborated with different companies in order to produce a perfect smartphone. In order to let their products be competitive enough, apple company did an excellent not only in design its operating system, despite this they chooses to cooperate with Sumsung, Foxconn corporation etc. The former one applied the sapphire screen, the latter one took the responsibility of packaging in China,because the former one applies the screen with high quality and the latter one would apply more cheaper labor to package in a super efficient way.

Competition:
This behavior can be found in labor market, especially for those who graduate from university holding a will of hunting a suitable job. In this case, the applicants will face various steps of interview, meanwhile they will be by analyzed and chosen by human resource departments. The most important thing in this period is also a competition with the other applicants, with the same education background, the more cautious applicants may be more possible accepted. In this period it's a competition of all the applications.

Reciprocity:
Giving a discount to customers is a kind of reciprocity, usually the seller will do some “sacrifice” on their prices of products. Then the customers will be attracted and buy their products with high mood, thus leave a quite pleasant purchasing impression on the seller. In fact, the reciprocity behavior will appear very soon after the customers decide to buy the products of the same brands again. If more customers decide like this in the future, the reciprocity will be reflected also to the sellers who gave their customers discount, more profit will be gained.

Revenge:
This can be found more purely in our childhood, when we didn't know how to do right thinking and control our behaviors. It's not hard to find a little aggressive boy who hits one of his fellows for a toy’s ownership, then the one who got a hit will be so angry that he or she will give a hit back. One famous saying goes: an eye for an eye, is a very typical revenge. In this relation, always they got negative results.

Question 2
Innate knowledge is the knowledge which we human being had since we were born, no one taught us but we can do that behavior or action by nature. Let's take a new born baby for example, the first goal that the baby can reach is breathing by lungs, then probably he will begin to cry. That are both innate behaviors. And then he will be feeder by milk, the process of sucking is innate.
Talking about the acquired knowledge, then can still take “ cry and breath” for example. Firstly, we know probably crying when we grow up, cause we know when is the proper situation that we can cry and how to control the moment. Then we can take an example from yoga, the behavior of breathing can be also controlled to find a peace moment and spirit. By taking slow and deep breath we can relaxed from this yoga process.
Since crying and breathing are both innate knowledge, well let's say proper crying and healthily breathing are required knowledge which let us get more improved, at least than a new born baby.

Tommaso Subioli ha detto...

QUESTION ONE
I think one good example to highlight different kinds of social behaviour is trekking.
In my opinion trekking is a perfect situation to study the behaviour of humans because it challenges them, forcing them to cope with an environment they are not used to. When facing unusual circumstances, in fact, human beings show their innate and most truthful behavioural patterns.
For instance, when two people decide to go trekking together, usually they organize in order to bring food with them. Suppose that during a though leg they stop for lunch: Person A will offer to share the ham and the cheese he has. When, later in the day, it comes the time for dinner, Person B will surely share his dehydrated risotto with Person A, even if he had to carry the extra weight of the food in his backpack all day long and he is the one who paid for it, thus representing an example of reciprocity.
After dinner, they will have to pitch their tent: there is no doubt that they will cooperate. Knowing that it will be dark soon, they understand that it is better for both of them if they work together, instead of letting the other person doing the job alone, which would result in a trouble for everybody.
After a couple days of trekking, a violent and unexpected storm hits the two people while they are walking towards the top of a mountain. Person A spots a shelter between two rocks where he can hide from the severe rain and the incessant wind, but even from a distance he can see that there is no place for both of them. Therefore he starts running, without caring for the safety of Person B: when in danger, sometimes humans’ most basic instincts resurface and they result to be in competition for survival. Luckily the storm lasts only for half an hour, but that is enough for the poor Person B to be forced to continue the trekking suffering from a fever and from the uncomfortable situation of having no dry clothes.
When the vacation is coming to an end, both of them are tired and stressed due to the long walking. In addition to that, for the last two nights they could not sleep well because the soil where they pitched their tent was always full of uncomfortable rocks. During a long leg Person A realizes he forgot to refill his canteen in the morning and therefore he asks Person B for some water. In a normal situation Person B would surely help his friend in need, but in this particular moment he is stressed out and still suffering from the fever. Plus, he remembers well when Person A did not care about him during the storm, so he refuses to give him some of his water, even if his canteen is almost full. The revenge of Person B will make him feel a small sense of satisfaction in the short term, but eventually its only effect will be to create a silent and tense mood between the two for the rest of the walking, thus ruining their last day of vacation.

Oliver Tomassi ha detto...

1.
-The social behaviour of competition is closely linked to the Darwinian principle of the survival of the fittest which more than often resembles the economic structure we live with. In the business world it is the scarcity of potential costumers that leads firms into competition. By supposing that there are a fixed number of customers (therefore it is a zero-sum game), firms will compete amongst them to serve customers and survive in the business world.
-An example of cooperation can be seen in an orchestra. All musicians work together to achieve harmony and thus the goal of a good performance. It is impossible to create an orchestra without cooperation: the result would not be pleasant and definitely not successful. In my opinion the orchestra illustrates how cooperation is an always win game: a goal which cannot be achieved by individuals can be accomplished with the cooperation of more people.
-Revenge is a damaging behaviour which has been legalised by the state under the form of punishment and usually believed to be a prerequisite for a fair society. These punishments are generally proportional to the infringement committed and can be delivered in the form of fines or imprisonment. For example if a pyromaniac sets fire to a building, the community or state in which he committed the infringement may in some sense take revenge on him by reducing his physical liberties through imprisonment.
- Reciprocity is a fundamental player in today's globalised world. In a time when our society is faced with immense migration we realise the importance of this basic human behaviour. Local citizens welcome migrants and offer them food, shelter and their own time through volunteering. Reciprocity is the sum of cooperation and time, therefore in some sense the locals expect something back from the newcomers at a later stage: respect, integration and so on. Thus, it is not surprising that when one of the welcomed commits a crime there is often a reaction from the welcoming community: the seal of the invisible deal has been broken.
2. The differences between innate and acquired forms of human knowledge are sometimes clear, such as in the case of vital human activities like breathing or eating for innate knowledge, and speaking a language or playing a sport for acquired knowledge. However, there are also forms of knowledge which cannot be smoothly included in one of the two categories. It may be the case of learning: every infant goes to school to "learn how to learn", thus proving that "learning" is a form of acquired knowledge. However, we cannot say that learning is only a form of acquired knowledge since it would be a paradox: to "learn how to learn" one must already know how to learn in the first place, therefore learning must be to some extent also a form of innate knowledge. In a similar way, other cognitive activities such as thinking and making choices in my opinion can't be easily settled in one category or the other. In fact it is obvious that every human being is born with the capacity of thinking, but at the same time the way in which every individual thinks is shaped and determined by the external environment. Similarly, when it comes to the "choice-making capacity" we can also distinguish between innate and acquired knowledge. The Innate instinctive ability of roughly balancing the alternatives and choosing is a skill every human being is born with, but it is only through experience that each individual can learn how to make better decisions. Given all these blurred examples we can spot a trend of development in the capacities of learning of each individual. Thus we can affirm that humans are born with basic forms of knowledge which are fundamental for the learning process, we are born with these very basic tools which allow us to understand, learn and make sense of the environment around us and thus to better adapt to it. It is this flexibility in the process of learning that have made the human a successful species.

Arianna Patrizi ha detto...

QUESTION 1:
Competition, cooperation, reciprocity and revenge have always been at the core of human beings’ relations and their very complex dynamics.
Of course, the easiest way to understand how these human behaviours actually come into play is through some concrete examples.
Among the several situations that could perfectly explain them, i will opt for an example with kids as protagonists, because of their more spontaneous and impulsive way to act, which could really help us in identify the pure nature of these basic behavioural patterns.
Let’s say that there are two kids, A and B, who are spending their free time together but they totally disagree about the game to play.
Now, this situation could develop in two different ways:
In one case, these two kids could keep on arguing, each one claiming that his game is better than the one of the other, losing precious time just because of their want to prevail on the other and reach their personal goal.
So basically, this would be the case where a pure form of competition sets in.
On the contrary, they could reach a compromise like playing one game for half of the time and the other for the rest of it, and so cooperate for their original aim which was just having fun, also understanding how it could be more “profitable” for both.
Always focusing on the kids example, it could also happen that kid A decide to let kid B choose the game to play for all the time, without having anything in change for that, just starting a relation of reciprocity based on trust, according to which maybe next time kid B will do the same for him.
Assumed that, let’s say that the day after the kids meet again but, kid B wants to play his game again for all the time, so kid A driven by a desire of revenge, decides to go home even if it that implies to don’t play at all.
QUESTION 2:
Among the infinite quantity of human knowledge we can distinguish between innate knowledge and acquired one.
Anyway, this distinction is not always so clear as it could seem and it’s very hard to look at these two fields of knowledge as to completely separate entities or, to deny any kind of interaction between them.
If i have to think about some examples of pure innate knowledge, the first thing that comes to my mind is crying.
Crying is the first action that every human being does suddenly after his birth, and it’s the very first and only tool that a baby knows in order to communicate his hunger, tiredness and every kind of need or discomfort before he learns to speak.
For what concerns the acquired knowledge, the possible examples are a lot since humans spend their entire life learning and acquiring new informations from the very first day of their life.
The capacity of acquiring knowledge is so strong and deep in human beings that sometimes we learn things unconsciously or we forgot to have learnt them, especially when we learn them not in a formal way or when we “use” this knowledge in our everyday life.
Everytime we read, write, walk, whistle, eat, dress ourselves we don’t have to think about how to do it, however these are all things we can do because of a past learning process.
On the contrary, is more easy to identify and recognize as acquired knowledge things that we learn at university, or when we are in adult age or things that we don’t do with easiness like solving a math problem.

Zikang Zhang ha detto...

Question 1
There are four model of basic behavioral patterns for humans:
For example, we can assume that here are two union countries A and B. A has plenty of food, and B needs the supply of A; B has a large number of troops, and A needs the army of B to help defend the country.
--- Competition is often considered to be opposite of cooperation, which means like a game, someone wins and someone must lost. In the case of hypothesis, as you can see, State B has many troops, B can defeat country A easily. Then we get the consequence, B will win and A will lose.
--- Co-operation is the process of acting or working together for common or mutual benefit, which means everybody wins. Under the same assumptions, State A provides food to State B, and State B provides border protection to State A. In this way, both two countries can be peace and stability.
--- Revenge means everyone loses. There is no positive in a situation. Assuming that one day, State A has an earthquake, State B does not provide the appropriate assistance to the country A. Resulting in the country A, there will be insufficient food production and no excess food for country B, at the last, country B will appear famine. On the contrary, if State B suffers an earthquake, State A does not give State B any food for helping. State B will not have many troops to defend the borders of country A. At the end, country A will suffer the enemy from other place, leading to the demise of the country.
--- Reciprocity is co-operation plus time(faith and trust), which means he/she helps someone without any back. If State A has an earthquake, then State B offers State A services to help them rebuild their state without any remuneration. After that there is a one day an earthquake occurs in State B, State A does the same things what State B did before. There are faith and truth between them.


Question 2
In class, we distinguished between innate knowledge and acquired knowledge. These are manifestations of mankind. A part of the knowledge is born with us which s innate knowledge, such as: breathing, moving, blinking, shouting, etc. As time goes on, we gradually forget Some are innate. Innate knowledge is difficult to detect. The other part is what we have come into contact with and learned in the social environment, which is acquired knowledge, such as: a foreign language, driving, singing, writing and so on. Besides, for human being, the acquired learning is more than innate abilities. They know how to learn. There is only 10% that we are born with, 90% is acquired learning from our social environment.
More important, there is an example where the distinction is blurred and not clear at all. It is swim. In the time we were born, in fact, we could swim and float in the water to avoid choking the water. As we grew up, we gradually forgot how to float in the water (influenced by our social environment). We need to find a coach or let our father and mother to guide us how to swim. And someone engaged in related work, such as lifeguards, divers, swimmers, etc., for them swimming needs more training and more related knowledge.

Lavinia D'achille ha detto...

QUESTION 1

Competition,coperation,reciprocity and revenge.

Thinking about these four social behaviors, which are those that make us not really different one from another, many potential situations come to my mind.
As regard as competition, a possible and very common pattern could be the relationship that could be established among two colleagues who have to show their best in order to be promoted to a better position. Since there is just one available new position that can not be shared, one of them will lose.
As far as concerned the cooperation, which basically happens when people share the same purpose at the same time, we can think of a situation where two journalists are working on an article that will be published in a newspaper. Since they have the same goal they will cooperate trying both to do their best. Therefore one will need the support and help of the other in order to get a good result.
The third behavioral pattern is reciprocity which is a system of gifts plus cooperation plus time. One example that could explain what reciprocity means we can imagine a situation where two friends are at the bar and friend A decides to offer a coffee to friend B expecting that friend B will reciprocate the “gift” soon, so basically among the two friends there is a kind of “agreement” which is given for granted.
The last human behavior is revenge which is probably the most hated but at the same time common conduct that humans can experience. This conduct is based on the idea of making your own justice by inflicting what you have suffered because of a person to that person. This behavior has always been very debated in fields as literature or history because even if it has always been associated with something bad and negative revenge is deeply rooted in humans minds.


QUESTION 2

In class, we made a distinction between acquired and innate knowledge.
We have defined innate knowledge as a knowledge that we have since we are born, something natural that no one taught us, such as breathing; so basically is something that has to do with our biological sphere.
After having discussed innate knowledge we defined what acquired knowledge means by highlighting the main differences among the two.
Acquired knowledge is everything that the external environment teach us.
The first example that comes to my mind thinking about the distinction between them has to do with emotions.
Emotions and feelings are something innate to everybody linked to the natural and personal sphere. When we were child no one thought us how to cry or how to express our happiness trough laughing, but what the external environment transmitted us is how to control our feelings depending on the situation we are facing in that moment.







RIASH UDDIN BHUIYAN ha detto...

question 1: Social behaviors of human-being referring examples.

Social Behavior: Social behavior defines the interactions among individuals. The question arises that why there are instincts? It is believed that social behavior evolved because it was beneficial likely to survive and reproduce. Fewer behaviors of human being are as follows:
* Co-operation: People are one of the most cooperative species on the planet. Hunter-gatherer societies might provide some clues for the human being as an example. With more individuals cooperating together living in social groups is much protected. Examples that some can serve as sentries looking for danger while the other group members are eating or sleeping.
*Reciprocity: Helping each other increases our fitness directs toward kinship. Helping may simply be directed help in the past are therefore most likely to provide it in the future, leading to long-term correlations between giving and receiving within stable social relationships. Food sharing can be cited as one of the most common example, the un-resisted transfer of food from one individual to another.
*Revenge: It is believed that human beings are naturally aggressive, and that war is a natural way of showing it. In fact, scientists have proved that aggression is not inborn. There is always a traceable reason for this behavior. I strongly believe that we do not have the patience for what we are not encompassed in knowledge. War is a good example of revenge. War fires anger and impulses to attack and retaliate. Martin Luther King said, "an-eye-for-an-eye leaves everyone blind".
*Competition: Psychologically stated, competition has been seen as an inevitable consequence of the psychoanalytic view of human drives and is a natural state of being. Competing with each other about in the early 8th century of Muslim jurists used to travel around far away in search of knowledge is one of the positive beneficial points of competition in the human being. So race to all that is good.

RIASH UDDIN BHUIYAN ha detto...

Question 2: Is Knowledge is innate or acquired?
Innatism refers to the knowledge which is not based on, nor can be explained by whereas acquired knowledge that is learned. Predominantly, the belief is we are born as 'Blank slate' and we gain knowledge and ideas through new experiences. Plato believed that soul exists externally and in a "world of form" before life on earth, all learning is the process of remembering 'SHADOW' of theses forms on earth.
Several realistic facts bring us into question whether knowledge is innate or learned for the human being.
Literally, Should knowledge is learned, the knowledge that the past civilization had should have well explained and learned to us so far.
I stop by wondering how could the tribe of 'Thamud' in the 8th century BCE carved out the rocks and built the city on the slope of mount 'Athlab'. It is known as the city of 'Petra' or 'The lost stone city'. The researcher couldn't figure out well how could they built 100 feet taller, not constructed but they are curved that is located in one of the bone-dry desert.
Moving back from a civilization part, looking at newborn baby there are traces that put us in the question of innatism or acquired. It has been proved that a newborn baby can distinguish own parent from another person.
Considering that the fact of both newborn baby or the highly knowledgeable tribe I have mentioned above might need quite deep research, I can go through currently ongoing research of how a baby learns the language.
A quite earlier year, an MIT researcher made a research on his own baby boy that how the baby is learning. He used 365 days non-stoped birds-eye viewed camera fitted on top with a fine voice recording for continuous years. Five other researchers together investigated for past two years before his baby learned the single word 'Water' from the pronunciation of 'gaga' in search of water. Empirically, the environment matters but he concluded that it depends on 'The relative length of utterance'. It has been universally agreed that we are born with genes that allow us to learn the language. Nativist theory suggests there is universal grammar across different language, as grammar is part of our genetics.
Based on stated above, Does it mean the acquired knowledge doesn't exist? I personally would sum up that, yes knowledge is innate, but we do have rational power and capacity to think, that along with broadening and improving our knowledge that I can frame as 'Acquired' and the culture is an evidence of that.

Liz D ha detto...

Question 1.
I will try to give examples of the human interactions.
COMPETITION: this usually happens when two or more people or teams are one against the others in order to reach a goal or prize in case of race.
I take the example of two dancers who have trained hard for years and now they have the chance to be hired in a prestigious theater, assuming there's one only place left. They will give their best and they will compete one against the other, becoming, eventually aggressive.
COOPERATION: here I take again the example of the two dancers, but in another situation. They are in the same team and they are competing with another dance team for one only place in the same theater and this place is designed for the best choreography. In this case the two dancers will work together and will cooperate in order to reach the same goal.
RECIPROCITY: here I'm going to change example. It is very simple: if I help a friend in a difficult situation and, when needed, this friend will make the same.
VENGEANCE: unlike the other situations, here everyone has a loss and nobody wins. The example that comes to my mind is the one of couples who split up and they start to ask one another all the goods and shared together i.e house and money, or when they fight one against the other for the exclusive custody of children.
.

Ganna Korniychenko ha detto...

1)

I can allocate competition in a situation in which two persons are interested to overcome the other. The worst case is when this kind of dynamics involves directly or indirectly other people. I can not mention responsibility which in my opinion is strictly connected to competition because it comprehend all the consequences (often negative) of this social behavior.
1.Our society has a complex structure and complexity requires order and sometimes the division of competences. Talking about public administration employees I personally experienced a similar case; the fact I would like to stress is that the delivery of service looses a lot if two employees focus on how to work less and move people in the queue to another employee.
2.Throw cooperation all the employees can benefit if they respect people in the queue and also their colleagues. By sharing an equal number of people the service will acquare trust and satisfaction for both person-single employee and employee-employee relationship.
3. During the past years reciprocity in public administration
was raising a lot of dust around Italy. Reciprocity was used in its negative side leading to corruption at different levels between offices and departments of public administration. The positive outcome is that nowadays we have more checks and
anti-corruption policies which gives an apparent relief.
4. Revenge can be analyze from both micro and macro point of view. The revenge between certain employees of the same department on some issues or bureaucratic practices. In high places the same could happen between two or more involved leaders. As I have already said complex society implies complex dynamics with enlarged effects and responsibility.

Liz D ha detto...

Question 2.
We have seen the difference between innate knowledge and acquired knowledge. It is considered as innate everything that has to do with all the actions aimed aaimed att the fulfillment of our basic needs and survival instincts. aimed at fulfilling our basic examples of innate knowledge can include breathing and eating. Acquired knowledge, instead, is everything that is learned with the passing of time. As said in class, culture is considered as acquired knowledge.
Examples can include the language, the habits, non-verbal comunication.

Lavinia Apicella ha detto...

Question 1:
1.Competition: One example of this typical behaviour among humans could be found in any Italian high school: for instance, here students compete against each other every day for 5 years to achieve top grades and every year they are assigned a number of credits based on the average of their grades. This will be taken into account especially at the final exam called “maturità”, where only those who have a high amount of credits can graduate with 100 cum laude, which is the top score and allows exemption from university taxes. Potentially, every student has the same opportunities of the others. However, in fact this competitive attitude towards students that evaluates and rewards them only on the basis of their grades doesn’t encourage them to study more but less, because they feel alienated from the social sphere and constantly judged.
2.Cooperation: It’s a very common behaviour, that can be found in many aspects of the daily life of humans. Cooperation is a main principle in sport teams, cultural and religious organizations, volunteering associations, etc. For instance, a volleyball team, which is composed of 6 members/players, cannot score a point without passing the ball to each other (maximum to 3 members, so 3 touches). If they can’t score points, they can’t win the matches and succeed. So basically, they need each other to play and move forwards: in this case, cooperation is necessary. Each member of the team has to contribute to the game in order for the team to function. One person alone couldn’t play volleyball.
3.Reciprocity: It’s a social norm that implies a relationship between two or more people, who feel obligated to repay, in kind, what the other person has provided for them. So for instance, if I invite my classmates to my birthday party, they then all feel gratitude towards me since they are my guests. In return, they feel the need to invite me to their birthday parties in the future. Reciprocity can be spontaneous or obligated, as most of the time.
4.Revenge: When someone does something bad towards you, you feel the need to “punish” him or her with the same treatment. It’s a negative feeling that can be transformed into something concrete if supported. In ancient civilizations, there was the saying “eye for an eye”, which meant that if someone did something bad to someone else, the action had to be returned. What we basically call “revenge” today, they saw as justice. For instance, if Bill kills George, George’s relatives will seek revenge because of their loss and perhaps respond with another terrible action or not.

Lavinia Apicella ha detto...

Question 2:
INNATE AND ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE:
In class we talked about innate and acquired forms of human knowledge and classified “culture” as any form of human knowledge that has been acquired. Moreover, we also discussed the main difference between animals and human beings, which is that human knowledge is almost all acquired, while animals learn very little in their life. Their knowledge is 90% innate, so biologically programmed. Some examples of innate human knowledge could be those all behaviours that the biology of our body implies, such as breathing, eating and drinking. Walking could be considered as a natural behaviour, even if the line is blurred because we as a species evolved and learned how to walk on two legs. In fact, crawling is an innate human action, since babies crawl until they are taught how to stand and walk. They crawl because it’s naturally the most comfortable way to move around. So basic human behaviours are innate, while culture consists of everything else. Dancing, laughing, reading, speaking, swimming and writing are all acquired knowledge, since they have been “learned” and aren’t natural in human behaviour. Art and music are also acquired knowledge since men have created these two disciplines. Language has also been taught to us, even though we don’t remember learning our mother tongue because we were too young. If you leave a baby on an island and leave him/her there for say 15 years, it will never behave as the other 15-year-olds of the world, simply because he/she hasn’t been affected by society and culture. Therefore, it has very little and simple knowledge acquired by living in the nature but mostly innate knowledge.

Tommaso Subioli ha detto...

QUESTION TWO
I was really interested in this classification of human knowledge according to the two categories of innate and acquired. Also the anthropological definition of culture was shockingly clear and simple. As we usually define culture by listing our traditions, values or manners, we always forget that all of these habits are nothing more than something we learnt during our life. Sometimes we learnt them at such a young age that we don’t even remember somebody teaching them to us, so we usually assume that some of our behaviours are simply innate, belonging naturally to us as to everybody else in our community. This is why we forget that when we are born we are intellectually nothing more than empty containers (still very receptive ones), ready to be filled with the knowledge that we acquire from the environment surrounding us, namely culture.
Listening to this lesson reminded me of something my father said to me a couple times. During the last years he started practising Zen meditation and getting closer to Buddhism philosophy, therefore in his new pantheistic vision of the world he always tell me how we do not exist as single human beings. This could seem a bit off-topic related to anthropology, but his point was that we are nothing more than the sum of the stimuli we receive from the outside world. We are made of what our parents taught us, of what they did in their own life, of the choices our ancestors made. Basically, in my father’s opinion there is very less of innate knowledge in ourselves, we simply do not add much of our own to define who we are.
Therefore we can say that the way we think is acquired knowledge itself. This may seems strange, as thinking is one of our innate capabilities, but we often forget that our own vision of the world is acquired from the experiences we had in our life.
I think friendship is another good example of where the border between innate and acquired is blurred. Human beings are clearly social animals, we are used to live in packs since our species evolved from apes. Our social life back then was anyway determined by the necessity of survival: it was not friendship as we now mean it, it was cooperation. We developed across thousands of years a codified scheme for interacting with other human beings. According to this scheme, now it seems normal to us to prefer some people over others, to dedicate more time to them, to feel a special bond with them, to give birthday presents to them, to tell them our deepest thoughts and fears.
Maybe I am wrong, but I think most social relationships we build are not innate patterns of behaviour, belonging more to the field of acquired knowledge.

Elsa Maria Festa ha detto...

Question 1. We identified four basic behavioural patterns that characterize all human beings. I think that the theme of love is a good example that can effectively show these four main ways of behaving. It is complicated to define love in words, but it is possible to analyse how human beings act in the name of love.
Competition: At times love is seen as a game, and so it is possible to see it as a winning or loosing game. Therefore we can say that love can socially represent a competition. As an example we can look at two young friends that fall in love for the same girl. They would both do anything in order to gain her attentions. They would both try to talk, ask her for a date and start a relationship with her. Probably after some time she will have to decide between the two boys. At this point one of the boy will feel as he won and the other will feel as he lost.
Revenge: As I said above human beings act in the name of love. More often than we would want the supposedly acting in the name of love reveals itself to be deeply untrue. If we think about terrorists of isis the first thing that comes into our mind is blood, violence, destruction and death; all images that for sure we do not associate with love. It looks absurd how in reality a lot of the terrorists say themselves of killing in the name of god, in the name of love for god. Terrorists act violently against those that they see as infidels and in doing so they themselves they are taking revenge for the pain and violence they experienced. Paradoxically killing becomes a sign of love in their views.
Reciprocity: Love is shown and it manifests itself in simple but meaningful acts, for instance two people hugging. An hug is an act of true reciprocity, it is done just for the sake of giving and receiving back love.
Co-operation: During the course of “Natural disaster risk management” Professor Ergin thought us the phase of financial protection, part of the process disaster risk management. Financial protection meaning the process of shifting the financial consequences of particular risks from one party to another. The household or community will obtain resources from the other party after a disaster occurs, in exchange for ongoing or compensatory social or financial benefits provided to that other party. Around the world we can take into consideration different local cultural practices. For instance the “Pay day”, between coworkers: every month, coworkers pay part of their salaries to a different member of the group. Or the “Gold day” in which we have an united group of people that meets on a regular basis and every member of the group hosts the meeting in turn. Everyone brings a gold coin and the host receives all the gold. Doing so safety nets are created inside the community, the risk is shared and co-operation is created in order to face the possible disaster in a united and organized way.

Elsa Maria Festa ha detto...

Question 2. The distinction between innate and acquired forms of human knowledge is a delicate matter. As the professor pointed out, a basic and banal thing like breathing becomes a process that must be learned, if we consider the point of view of yoga teachers. Therefore the distinction is more complicated and questionable than what it seems. I would say that innate knowledge is connected to the basic things that our body do from the first moments of our lives, for example the way we open and close our eyes. As human beings we are always shaped by what surround us, we are influenced in almost everything and that is why is hard to distinguish what we do naturally. I would say that it is possible to identify what is innate by analyzing the details. The details in the way we laugh or cry, in the way we move while sleeping, in the particular tics and sounds that we unconsciously emit, in the sudden expressions of our face, in the way we hug. Maybe what it seems more hidden or the particularities that we tend to hide are what is most innate in us. Regarding acquired knowledge the examples can be taken from numerous fields of life. A lot of social habits, like kissing when saying hello to someone, are learned and are not spontaneous for everyone, is a cultural habit. The theme of tastes, what we do like and what we don't, I would define as innate. For example if your mom forces you everyday to eat broccoli, you will have to do so and one day maybe you will start to appreciate broccoli, or at least that taste will become tolerable but you will always prefer chocolate to broccoli. Even if we learn to appreciate a food that we once didn't like we will always prefer something else to that food, we just become tolerant about that taste.

Melani Perera ha detto...


1st Question:

We were talked about the social behavior patterns in our anthropology and globalization class. The social behavioral patterns for humans are, COOPERATION, COMPETITION and RECIPROCITY and REVENGE.

Lets take an example for understand these each social behavior patterns individually. Think about the two cricket players as player X and player Y.

1.COOPERATION: Player X and Y are in a one team there was a cricket match and also selection for the someone from the teams as a man of the match. They both are expert to play cricket and if they try to show their skills individually one of them can easily won the man of the match trophy, but they didn't focus only the man of the match trophy they both try to play good and won the match as a team. Because of their cooperation they easily won the match and share their happiness with the other team members as a one team.

2.COMPETITION: There is a trophy for the man of the match so player X wants to do more practice and do more exercises for won the trophy. Player Y also have the idea for the trophy, but he didn't practice more. At last player X won the man of the match trophy because of hard working and dedication but player Y lost it.

3.RECIPROCITY: Player X and play cricket very well and he knows more interesting cricket techniques. Also player Y can play cricket very well but he should learn more cricket techniques for his future sport life. So player X likes yo teach player Y and he taught that important techniques for player Y without expecting anything back.

4.REVENGE: Player Y is against with player X. so he did't want to learn anything from player X. He tried to do practice alone and do what he can. Anyway he know player X know more than him, but he didn't care. There was no cooperation. At last player Y didn't get anything from his revenge but player X won the man of the match trophy, but because of revenge of player Y he lost the man of the match trophy.

2nd Question:

When I talked about the distinction between INNATE KNOWLEDGE and ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE, in my opinion it is complicated. But I believe innate knowledge and acquired knowledge are strongly connected to each other. I would like to define an innate knowledge as things people are born with. some examples foe innate knowledge are, breathing,crying,smiling and moving etc. It's something every human being is born with. Lets take a new born baby for an example, when he/she born that baby can easily breath. it's come naturally, no one teach him/her to take breath. That is an important example for an innate knowledge we all were born with.
Also acquired knowledge means the knowledge that we learnt from someone or learnt through the experience. For an example reading, writing and cooking etc. Lets think like this, consider the knowledge we already have the things we really we can do. They are things we have done over and over, practiced them so often that they became second nature. Every normal person know how to cry and how to smile in innate, but in an acquired knowledge he/she learn how to control their emotions ( means that when they should cry and when they should smile) and also we know how to talk and walk, But we could never acquired this knowledge without practice. For the young child can't do the things that are easy to older people without first doing them over and over and over.

Alessandro Germani ha detto...

Question 1
Competition is the main engine that -ideally and theoretically- drives the current dominant economic system: market-based capitalism. In this context, buyers and sellers compete with each other in order to get the best bargain relative to a good, which is the lowest price for the first and the highest price for the latter. In addition to that, sellers (suppliers) engage in non-price competition between them in order to gain a so-called “competitive advantage” for their products. However, empirical studies have shown that markets tend to increasing concentration and centralization of capital and competition is actually the engine of monopolies.
An interesting example of cooperation is given by International Relations during the Cold War. Indeed, the two rival superpowers, USA and USSR, cooperated several times in science & technology. One of the first and main examples is the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), the first joint U.S.-Soviet space flight. It resulted in a docking module jointly designed by the United States and Soviet Union and other technical solutions still used nowadays. Through the cooperation program “Interkosmos”, the Soviet Union helped countries such as Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba, Mongolia, Romania and Afghanistan to reach the space and, in particular, to send the first black and Hispanic person and the first Asian person to space. The mentioned states were socialist, but the USSR offered this kind of cooperation also to non-aligned countries (India and Syria) and even to capitalist ones (France and Austria). Regarding political and military cooperation, the Soviet role was crucial for the victory of anti-colonial movements in the wars of national liberation in Africa and Asia.
International affairs offer us examples about reciprocity, too. Indeed, it is a deep-rooted concept in diplomacy, widely used for mutual recognitions, reduction of tariffs and travel restrictions. The political scientist Keohane distinguished reciprocity in specific, such as international trade negotiations, and diffused, the latter being an “institutionalisation of trust”.
Please note that what is stated before is conceived following the thesis according to which states behave in the international arena as if they were individuals, or generalising the social behaviour from the single person to the whole society represented in the form of state.
Revenge is considered as a lose-lose situation. However, one can argue that the person seeking and successfully achieving revenge is gaining a point, which is satisfaction. An interesting example is the story - legend? - of one man that, tired of the clutch problems of his car, complained directly with its creator, Enzo Ferrari. He replied: “What do you know about cars, you that drive tractors?”. That man was Ferruccio Lamborghini and, in response (or better, revenge), he started to produce the famous sports cars besides tractors.

Question 2
The distinction between innate and acquired knowledge may seem easy. While innate skills are simple, basic actions such as breathing, walking and eating linked to genetics, nature and the satisfaction of physiological needs, the acquired knowledge is composed by superior concepts obtained through learning, such as speaking a language and playing a musical instrument. However, the issue is more complex: we have the potential to stand up and walk on two feet but this potential has to be activated through a form of learning, such as imitation. Also speaking is a skill for which we have some predisposition and it is not completely acquired. We can think of an interesting case of a potential skill which is innate but not ready to use until a certain age and has to be activated by genetics: reproduction. According to a philosophical thought, Innatism, the human mind is born with ideas while according to Empiricism, it is a tabula rasa.

Grace Mageka ha detto...

1. Question on examples of various social behavior;
a. competition, in this kind of social behavior there is always one who takes lead. A good example of competition is the Athletics game where we see people running at the end we see one becoming a winner of race.
b. Cooperation, in this kind of the social behavior; everyone wins for example people working as a team towards to the realization of a goal,The people in kind of context tend to push each other and walk the talk.
c. Reciprocity; This type of social behavior bound to trust and time. For example the higher the demand of goods and services supplied this automatically translates to increased price.
d. Revenge social behavior most the cases employs violence, robbery and causes injuries and pains. God says do not revenge because avenge is to him. A good example is someone steals and if found is to be stoned to death.

2. The innate and acquired forms of human knowledge.
Innate human knowledge in human beings tend to get one rationale able to think logically and reason.rationality is innate and very superior in human-beings. How many times do we hear people say why is this not like this but that way. why do they ask such questions
Acquired form of human knowledge can learned how to play violin or piano.

Ganna Korniychenko ha detto...

1)
I can allocate competition in a situation in which two persons are interested to overcome the other. The worst case is when this kind of dynamics involves directly or indirectly other people. I can not mention responsibility which in my opinion is strictly connected to competition because it comprehend all the consequences (often negative) of this social behavior.
1.Our society has a complex structure and complexity requires order and sometimes the division of competences. Talking about public administration employees I personally experienced a similar case; the fact I would like to stress is that the delivery of service looses a lot if two employees focus on how to work less and move people in the queue to another employee.
2.Throw cooperation all the employees can benefit if they respect people in the queue and also their colleagues. By sharing an equal number of people the service will acquare trust and satisfaction for both person-single employee and employee-employee relationship.
3. During the past years reciprocity in public administration
was raising a lot of dust around Italy. Reciprocity was used in its negative side leading to corruption at different levels between offices and departments of public administration. The positive outcome is that nowadays we have more checks and
anti-corruption policies which gives an apparent relief.
4. Revenge can be analyze from both micro and macro point of view. The revenge between certain employees of the same department on some issues or bureaucratic practices. In high places the same could happen between two or more involved leaders. As I have already said complex society implies complex dynamics with enlarged effects and responsibility.

2)
What is extremely surprising is the origin of human beings’ actions and abilities. When I was 14 years old I read an interesting book about the development of human skills and its linkages with environment, social changes, family’s genetics and lifestyle.
All the acquired knowledge is our cultural background due to many factors which are involved in the learning process. Since the tender age babies learn how keep something, walk, recognize people around starting from their parents trying to say some words. Children learn to read, write, speak fluently and maybe to lean a foreign language. It is touching when a mother teaches her baby and takes care of him. Each of this processes passes throw our brain since our birth to the old age shaping our attitudes and our role in the society.
This extraordinary and huge capability to learn find its origin is some innate characteristics of human being such as capabilities to breath, smell, see and hear.
Some particular behaviors are not clearly located neither innate nor acquired; actions such as laughing, crying, face expressions can be sectored in a separate category because they express more than an automatic action which requires an external factor to be performed. Personally I can add to this category our personal glance is strictly personal and sometimes it transmits emotions without our control. All the attitudes belonging to the body language can be place in this blurred category.

Cristina Bottoni ha detto...

The human mind receives everyday many , many stimuli that came from different spheres of the daily life of everyone: these can be identified for example by the environment, by our family, our relatives, the school, the teachers, the guitar lesson, the language course, our friends. All human beings are naturally led to develop some behaviours according to these influences from the outside world: for this reason each one of us is different from the other and this is because everyone grow up in a different environment and live different experiences and situations. This is why, for example, two 18-year-old boys born and raised in two different parts of the world – let’s say Philippines and Iceland – could be the most different people in the world. Even though each of us has a particular and exceptional story, it could also be said that we all are united by some natural characteristics that are innate, let’s say natural, intrinsic in every human being. These habits are born with us and are – most of the time – uncontrollable. On the other hand we have the acquired habits: they are not born with us but they are learned and perfected as we grow up. . the acquired habits often reflects the influence of the environment we are in. Then we have another kind of behaviour: the inherited ones. In this case the situation is quite controversial because this kind of characteristics are not completely innate nor acquired: they are something in between, they have a blurred border and cannot be considered to belong to a specific group or the other. Inherited means that we are born with it, but is not shared by all human beings at the same level: it is in our genes, specifically to the ones of our family, so it changes as the genes change. An example of innate behaviour could be the act of breathing. No one taught us how to breath, but is something we do naturally and it is shared by all human beings in the same way: we all breath following the same procedure. Another example could be the beating of the human heart. The acquired, or learned, occupies almost 80% of the human mind. Humans are very good at learning, they learn fast and systematically, while animals live of instincts, the acquired share of their mind is roughly 10% (it also depends on which kind of animal species are you considering). The acquired behaviours are all those habits that we learn and we do not possess at the exact moment of our birth: writing, reading, driving, walking. Still, there is a third case in which we cannot distinctly assign one behaviour to the innate group or to the acquired group. These habits are, for example, fear. Or emotions. Laugh. They are not born with us but they are the product of a natural predisposition that lead us to experience them.

Cristina Bottoni ha detto...

Speaking about social behaviour, we can identify four types of them:
1) Competition. It is a situation in which two or more people (or groups) are trying to get something which not everyone can have. It reminds me the primary school problems with the slices of cake or the candies. Situations of completion are everywhere in our everyday life: when doing an interview for a job, when running for the race, when during the sale season we try to get the best clothes at the best prices for our size. We can say that everyone could potentially get the “price”, it is all a matter of strategy and, why not, also a little bit of luck!
2) Cooperation. Cooperation is that act of joint operation or action that leads to mutual benefits and compensations. We can say that is the opposite of competition and it occurs when people help each other in order to reach a common goal. In cooperation, nobody loses. An act of cooperation can be identified in the Greek economic crisis. All other European countries have cooperated giving Greece the means (money) in order to (try) let her away from the difficult economic situation.
3) Reciprocity. It is the exchange of something between people of groups of people when each person of group gives or allows something to the other. In reciprocity, I give something to you and you give something to me. In some cases there is a both-sided loss in the sense that each member of the exchange has to give up of lose something in order to give it to the other person. It can be identified in a gift or a favour a person gives you (usually expecting something in return).
4) Revenge. It involves hurting of punishing someone who has hurt or harmed you. It is a controversial behaviour in the sense that some people condemn it while some other admit it. A good case of revenge can be found in the Greek tragedy Medea, in which the woman gives to her husband, Jason, the meat of their children for lunch as an act of Revenge for having betrayed her.

Md Ashique Ali ha detto...


If i think on the first question suddenly friendship comes into mind. It is one of the beautiful relation in human kind, even its found in animals. lets talk about friendship in humans. There are two friends A and B. They are neighbors and share same school in the 9th standard. They always share food, books, notes, sports items, umbrella, bicycle/motorbike, money (at tea/coffee shop, restaurant movie show and for sports tournaments). This is a cooperation.

The exam comes. They have three exams every three months, the last one is the final. They got 80% and 65% marks A and B respectively. B felt slight bad but friendship was normal. They got 95% and 70% marks (A and B). This time B felt very bad and shame, he started ignoring A and concentrating hard on study. A felt quite confidence and make silence. it was a kind of cold war. At the final exam marks were 97% and 90% (A and B). Here B still got less marks but he was near to A. it was a competition.

Now they are in the next standard, both felt compromise, and reunion again but with a cold feeling of competition. Therefore, still they share things but in return of something, it means they exchange the things, don not cooperate, that is the reciprocity. after some times student A felt ill. He is unable to take lessons. B agree to share the notes, there is no need to worry. but he refuse to give the notes at the time. it causes tension between them. A felt revenge. One day B heard his family is going to transfer other city. Therefore, he comes in same condition as A. He do not want to loss study or grade. He contact to an other student C to help. A knows about all. He offer to help B with honesty and agree to forget previous things and they both apart. At the time of exam period they meet happily, but A refuse to provide notes, B feel anger but can not do anything. That calls revenge.

Md Ashique Ali ha detto...


about the second question, I would like to start with innate and acquired knowledge both faces in human being. The mother tongue, its a innate knowledge of human. No one knows when they learn and inhale mother tongue. apart from it, human learn other languages as require or as hobby which is acquired knowledge. To sleep,nobody learn the way how to sleep,people do automatically since child hood. To walk, human naturally learn how to walk,these are innate knowledge. The common feelings which are generally 9 according to Hindu mythology... to cry, to laugh, to fear, to brave, to sad, to happy, to anger, to love, to hate, these are also innate knowledge. Therefore, If we talk about acting in electronic media (movie, TV and internet), theater stage, other form of public speeches or sound media (radio and audio), at this point those emotions change into acquired knowledge. The reason we know, actors or speakers always express these emotions in fake way to get a bridge or connection with human (audience). We humans have feelings for taste such as bitter, sweet, salty, sour and spicy etc., these are innate knowledge, cause what someone feel the taste, they express as it is, but the individuals taste of human about food as .....I like Indian Chapati and Biriyani, someone likes their native food or someone can adopt a food as foreigner, so it changes when time and place change. Thus, this is an acquired knowledge. Lets talk on the last half of the question " the human behaviors or acts which has both faces...innate and acquired knowledge" such as love, the love between mother/father and child or between siblings/close relatives even among lovers, is innate, but at the same time, making friends or business partner even when we find or get lover, love changes in acquired knowledge. The reason, we generally match or see the taste, level, background, color, gender, born place, physic, education, beauty, economy, future, smartness and other angles of the life or behavior of human. At this point, love counts in acquired knowledge. I would like to talk on the way of human dressing. I born in a village in India and have been watching people in a same dresses since childhood, with some changes, so its basically a kind of innate knowledge but when I see the changes in a way of dresses or the native people if they migrate to other cities/countries, they adopt different style of dressing for acceptance of present environmental. Then, the way of dressing is acquired knowledge. These are some human behaviors which always give a blurred feeling between innate and acquired knowledge.

Oliver Tomassi ha detto...

1.
-The social behaviour of competition is closely linked to the Darwinian principle of the survival of the fittest which more than often resembles the economic structure we live with. In the business world it is the scarcity of potential costumers that leads firms into competition. By supposing that there are a fixed number of customers (therefore it is a zero-sum game), firms will compete amongst them to serve customers and survive in the business world.
-An example of cooperation can be seen in an orchestra. All musicians work together to achieve harmony and thus the goal of a good performance. It is impossible to create an orchestra without cooperation: the result would not be pleasant and definitely not successful. In my opinion the orchestra illustrates how cooperation is an always win game: a goal which cannot be achieved by individuals can be accomplished with the cooperation of more people.
-Revenge is a damaging behaviour which has been legalised by the state under the form of punishment and usually believed to be a prerequisite for a fair society. These punishments are generally proportional to the infringement committed and can be delivered in the form of fines or imprisonment. For example if a pyromaniac sets fire to a building, the community or state in which he committed the infringement may in some sense take revenge on him by reducing his physical liberties through imprisonment.
- Reciprocity is a fundamental player in today's globalised world. In a time when our society is faced with immense migration we realise the importance of this basic human behaviour. Local citizens welcome migrants and offer them food, shelter and their own time through volunteering. Reciprocity is the sum of cooperation and time, therefore in some sense the locals expect something back from the newcomers at a later stage: respect, integration and so on. Thus, it is not surprising that when one of the welcomed commits a crime there is often a reaction from the welcoming community: the seal of the invisible deal has been broken.
2. The differences between innate and acquired forms of human knowledge are sometimes clear, such as in the case of vital human activities like breathing or eating for innate knowledge, and speaking a language or playing a sport for acquired knowledge. However, there are also forms of knowledge which cannot be smoothly included in one of the two categories. It may be the case of learning: every infant goes to school to "learn how to learn", thus proving that "learning" is a form of acquired knowledge. However, we cannot say that learning is only a form of acquired knowledge since it would be a paradox: to "learn how to learn" one must already know how to learn in the first place, therefore learning must be to some extent also a form of innate knowledge. In a similar way, other cognitive activities such as thinking and making choices in my opinion can't be easily settled in one category or the other. In fact it is obvious that every human being is born with the capacity of thinking, but at the same time the way in which every individual thinks is shaped and determined by the external environment. Similarly, when it comes to the "choice-making capacity" we can also distinguish between innate and acquired knowledge. The Innate instinctive ability of roughly balancing the alternatives and choosing is a skill every human being is born with, but it is only through experience that each individual can learn how to make better decisions. Given all these blurred examples we can spot a trend of development in the capacities of learning of each individual. Thus we can affirm that humans are born with basic forms of knowledge which are fundamental for the learning process, we are born with these very basic tools which allow us to understand, learn and make sense of the environment around us and thus to better adapt to it. It is this flexibility in the process of learning that have made the human a successful species.

Giorgio Severi ha detto...

Q1
While thinking a specific example for each social behaviour, I realized that all the activities regarding humans, are indeed subjected to their beahviour. From sports to jobs, in every activity of human life, and even in life itself, at a certain moment competition, cooperation, vengeance and reciprocity sets in, beacause these are exactly the way in which a humans relate each other.
However I think sport is a good metaphore of life and therefore an appropriate field where to observe these behaviours, basketball particularly because all the four beahaviours can occour even at the same time, in the same match, and not as the countrary of the other in different moment.
A team playing in a league has as main objective the final trophy's victory, which will be achieved only beating the other teams. In this sense competition is the engine of the game, is the thing which push the players to do their best in order to overcome the opponent and to reach their goal; at the end of every game one team wins and the other loses.
At the basis of these sport there is the convinction that the goal will be achieved only together, only if each player will help the other and if the five men in the field will act as an hand, for the same objective. Cooperation therefore is essential for the pourpose of the single player and at once of the group, the victory of one means the vicotry of the team.
Over a season happens to face a specific team twice or more, taking for example two teams, A and B, if team A once lost a game to team B, for sure all the players of A wait to meet again team B in order to defeat them and take the revenge on the field.
Furthermore the reciprocity is a behaviour essential for the game. Often a team is composed by players wich have known each other for long times and shared lots of moments together, players which trust each other. In these way one rely on the other, everyone knows that as one player makes a mistake during the defensive phase, will instantaneusly receive help, ready to return the favour back with an assist during the attack phase.


Q2
A human has two kind of knowledge, innate and acquired. The former is the one present in us from the birth, embracing all the capacities instinctive in the mankind as breathing for example. The latter instead reppresents all the abilities learnt during our life as could be cooking or playing footbal.Thinking about a list of innate and acquired knowledge reminds me a funny memory, of me at the age of six when I was at my grandmother's house for lunch. In that occasion there was a foreign friends of my grandmother, who stared at me while I was eating pasta with the typical round movement of the fork, and her conclusion was that "clearly you Italians are born with the innate ability to properly eat pasta". That wasn't really the case of an innate capacity but gave me the hint to reflect about the difference between the two kinds of knowledges. Indeed the distinction is not always so clear, and sometimes we think we have always known something just because we don't remember when we learnt it.
Of course there are some cases where it is quite obvious whether something is innate or acquired knowledge, as for what concerns the capacity to solve an equation, which is clearly not innate for me. But there are particular cases, as the one of communication: in a human the capacity to speak is innate but language is acquired.
I think that a clear example of knowledge where the distinction is blurred is fear. Fear is obviously innate in every animal species and depends on the survival instinct, from the beginning of humankind fear provided a foundamental tool to survive.
But what about the fear of fire? Do we learn that fire burns, and than the consequential fear of it, when we were child maybe during a casual accident? But then what about the fear of dark?
I think that for what concerns the fears the distinction between innate and acquired is blurred.

Badriyya Soltanli ha detto...

Q1.
An example for the social behaviors given: Love.
When there are two people loving each other they usually reciprocate each other by giving gifts, complimenting, most importantly loving. Let's call them Jane and Tom. However, there appears another third person ( Ken ) involved, it becomes a triangle which continues with the competition for the same person, Jane. This kind of competition is not healthy at all which may lead to very huge damages. Making it even more complicated, bringing another 4th one ( Mary ) into the issue loving the other will lead it to the co-operation. Co-operation of Mary and Ken in order to get what they want may end Jane and Tom's relationship. If they achieve their plans and the couple breaks up, it is a possibility that one of the sides will want to revenge.

Q2.
Innate and acquired forms of knowledge: More acquired – more intelligent. We, human-beings have the capacity to learn the things, to acquire knowledge. Indeed humans because of the quantity of acquired knowledge which is higher than innate knowledge, we are more intelligent than the other animals. The basic needs of humans and animals are innate, that we have being constantly doing all the time, such as drinking, eating.
From the examples we have examined in the class, we saw that there is more of a bridge between innate and acquired knowledge. We usually pick up the things we see around us, which creates our cultural knowledge. I was thinking of crawling for the baby kids as an example of innate knowledge. New born kids do not know how to crawl, however they do try to use all their energies to get to somewhere else, which leads it to walking when they get ready for that. I percieve walking as an acquired knowlegde, as we are helped out by our parents how to have our first steps, if not so, if there were not any human beings around helping us with how to walk, we would probably end up like Tarzan who was not able to walk due to the fact that he grew up among the animals.

Mohammad Almulla ha detto...

Question 1
One good example, in my opinion, is related to sports and I would like to use the example of football as we can see these human social behaviors really quickly. In a football team, there is always competition between teammates in many aspects there can be competition between two players in the same team for example as they can compete for who plays more or who scores more and there are many aspects they can compete in but on the other side they both can decide to work with each other to try to score the most amount of goals by assisting each other, same time they can switch positions on the field to make use of each other's strong points,but it can all go the other way as one might think the other is trying to subbotage him and try to seek revenge on him.

Question 2
Human knowledge can be either innate or acquired, there is much innate knowledge that we humans have and most of them we don't even realize it until we take a deeper look at them, mostly our innate behaviors are those ones that represent the animal behavior, the most obvious ones we notice include breathing, blinking, coughing, sneezing just to list a few, nobody taught us these behaviours we are just able to perform them without even giving a second thought.As for acquired knowledge, it is the one that we have to learn and we have to improve through our lifetime. One example could be reading we have to be taught how to read and even after learning how to read we have to improve this skill or behavior by reading more which will improve our reading speed and will enable us to read and know more complicated words. There are many acquired knowledge that humans will have to interact with throughout their lifetimes and reading was just a small example of that.

Carlotta Frasca ha detto...

Q1: An examle that contains all the patterns that characterize the human behaviour can be volleyball, more specidfically two volleyball players. As I, being myself a volleyball player, saw and witnessed dirctly these behaviours over the years.
As an athlete you need competiotion in order to succeed, in order to earn a spot on court on sunday you need to compete against the other teammates and prove the coach that you deserve to play. Although being volleyball a team sport, you can't succeed without cooperation with the other parts of the team. For example you need a good ball from the setter in order to hit the ball, you need phisioterapy assistence in order not to hurt yoursel, and you need to trust your defense when is needed. When talking about reciprocity the only example that comes to my mind is to be kind to the setter, who is the only one who can give you the ball, and gives you the chance to hit the ball and make the point. Over the years I assisted to many relationship setter- hitter that were just a convenience to both parts, so then the hitter as more chances to prove himself, and the setter gets free coffees, many candies, and a lot of complimets. As for the revenge behaviour, those players that are not going to make are going to feel mad and angry to those who made it, this leads to vicious actions, sometimes even hurting the other player “accidentally”. Ù

Q2:When we talk about innate is an idea allegedly inborn in the human mind, as contrasted with those received or compiled from experience. It is basically every feature that we do without remembering when we learnt it. The idea that some characteristics of an organism are explained by the organism's intrinsic nature, infact I find those characteristics similar to those of animals and every breathing being. For example, breathing, yawning, blinking and being hungry or thursty. It is more related to nature and to what we have inside us since we were born.
When we are talking about acquired we are talking about feature that we learned over time, for example reading. We had to train ourselves to read, it took us a lot of time and a lot of effort. It wasn't within us, we weren't born knowing letters, alphabets, sounds and words.

Iva Budakova ha detto...

Question 1:
I will discuss some examples about all basic human behaviors.
Firstly, the term “competition” can be interpreted differently from different individuals but mainly we can identify it as one contest in which there is always a winner and a looser. One of the first examples that comes to my mind because I had recently experienced it is when you want to apply for a specific university but the free places are limited so in this case there will be Person A who will take that spot and Person B who will be left bellow the line. The winner will be Person A whose grades and motivation were better than Person B who is the looser.
Secondly, as an example of “Co-operate” I can only think about sports like basketball because they are all individuals but they play as one team. In this case even if only one basketball player scores, it automatically means that the whole team wins and that’s the point of “Co-operation”.
Thirdly, we have “Revenge”. Here a good example can be student’s favorite thing which is exams. If Person A don’t know the answer for a specific question and asks Person B for the correct answer, Person B gives him his answer knowing that it is the right one but at the end Person B fails only because he gets this answer wrong and that means Person A fails as well because he copied the wrong answer. This situation can be seen as Revenge because someone else’s lost is responsible for your lose as well.
Lastly, “Reciprocity” which has to do with trust and faith and an example can be when you make charity and give money to someone but you don’t want anything instead or you don’t expect anything. This behavior is related mainly to the ability of thinking for other people.


QUESTION 2:
Culture is acquired knowledge as we discuss in class. Acquisition is made through very important aspects which are experience and representation. There are 2 types of knowledge – acquired and innate. The connection between them is really complicated. I will start from acquired because it is higher and more difficult for explanation. The main word is “learning”. We are biologically organized to learn. We learn while we are kids - how to walk, speak and eat from our parents. We always know who is teaching and who is learning but mainly we learn from experience that happened in the past and, in general from everyday life. On the other hand, we have innate knowledge which is something that cannot be learned. This is the big difference between acquired and innate knowledge. Examples to explain innate are breathing, laughing and basic needs. It has to be transmitted and has to change in order to survive. Regarding emotions, it is hard to say that there are innate but we can see that they are really flexible. They can be unique and personal and we feel them as a consequence of the empirical world. In my opinion, the most important tool for human beings is to have the ability to learn because it is a key of improving yourself, your skills and developing your mind in a way which every individual can do in order to become more strong and confident.

Marianna Sabatini ha detto...

Q1) What comes to my mind when we talk about competition is competition in the academic field. I know of many universities in which students are very competitive, they would never share their knowledge with other students because they think this could damage them.
An example of co-operation is when I used to play with Lego with my little brother. We were always arguing when we were kids but we had learnt that we were able to build great things with Lego if we worked together mixing our ideas.
Revenge is another social behavior typical of human beings. An example can be when I used to argue with my brother and I would hit him first and he would fight back and what is interesting is that I usually allowed him to hurt me back because I considered it as justice but now I know that revenge and justice are two very different concepts.
About reciprocity, an example is when I have to go to a party and I get ready with a friend of mine and we share clothes and make-up. It is a win-win game because we both benefit from it.

Q2) Innate forms of knowledge are those that we did not learn, but that we just know. For example a horse can immediately walk right after its birth without having anyone teaching it how to do it. Moreover, I think we have innate the capability to understand what our body needs. For instance, we can associate a certain physical condition to hunger, thurst, need to go to the bathroom. I think that all human beings have the same kind of innate knowledge but then they can behave differently according to their experience. For example we all were born with the ability to feel love or anger or embarassment but our way to externalize these feelings depends on our previous experience, our culture in some cases or simply on our personality. Similarly, we can say for sure that writing is an acquired knowledge, but what does our calligraphy depend on? Is it acquired or innate?
On the other hand, acquired knowledge includes all those things that we learnt at school like reading, counting, computing additions and so on, and all those things that we learnt through experience from every day life.

Rossella rao ha detto...

Q1. Make an example for each type of social behavior
Having analyzed the following basic behavioral patterns in class, we can make an example in a work environment. Let’s assume that in an office there are some workers; each worker can choose what type of behavior to carry out. Therefore we can watch how they act. Now, let’s make an example for each:
COMPETITION: if a worker decide to conduct this type of behavior it means that he or she is making a race to “win the prize” or get the promotion. Therefore in carrying out this type of behavior there will be a winner and a looser because it’s like a race.
COOPERATION: this type of behavior is a win for all. Each worker will collaborate to reach the common goal together.
RECIPROCITY: we have defined in class reciprocity as a system of gifts. The most important thing to say here is that it’s intentional. We can therefore make an example of giving a gift to a coworker for a particular festivity. The coworker, remembering the gesture will “repay” the kindness received. It’s a strange type of feeling because when we receive a gift we feel like we are obliged to return the favor when the time comes. So to sum up we can say that reciprocity is cooperation plus time.
REVENGE: in this case we can make an example where a parson gets his work wrong and he feels revenging the fact that he “lost” with damaging other people around him. Revenge is also a strange behavior since human beings get satisfaction out of it.
Q2. List innate and acquired forms of human knowledge (bring examples where the distinction is blurred):
Another interesting part of the class was to distinguish innate from acquired knowledge. We have said that culture is acquired knowledge. But the interesting part of this, is that we lost the awareness of acquiring the knowledge that we have naturalized it. Some examples of acquired knowledge can be talking and walking since we have in our brain a predisposition to do so and we have to activate it. Whereas innate knowledge can be emotions, breathing, blinking and so on. No one teaches us how to do it, it comes natural. However this concept of innate and acquired sometimes is blurred and hard to distinguish. I would like to make a dared example of his concept hoping it’s correct. Let’s assume that there’s a newborn baby, if the baby gets lost in the woods and assuming he would survive he or she wouldn’t be able to speak nor walk as humans, but in some sense she or he can emit noises and sounds, in fact the first thing a baby does when its born it’s to cry.