2011/12: INFORMAZIONI PER CHI AVEVA 12 CFU E TUTTI GLI MP3 DELLE LEZIONI

lunedì 20 novembre 2017

Anthropology of Globalization for Global Governance #12 & #13

13 & 15 November 2017. Two classes (here the first, there the second) on Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. We worked on reading Arjun Appadurai’s most famous article, namely, Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy.

We started from EXPERIENCE and REPRESENTATIONS as the two sources of our ACQUISITION of that ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE we’ve termed CULTURE.

While our physical bodies has remained the same for the last 150 thousand years, thus living unchanged our sources of experience, some tremendous changes have occurred in the last 5 thousand years or so. WRITING has superseded the need for SYNCHRONICITY in communication, offering a brand new source of representation in form of EXTRA SOMATIC MEMORY. Then the PRESS popularized writing and reading and made it possible the commodification of books, giving sway to NATIONAL CULTURES. Steam power, Electric and Electronic revolution have set a further step in offering human beings entirely new sources of representations and here is where Appadurai devices his model.

We read the article well enough to became acquainted with ETHNOSCAPES, TECHNOSCAPES, FINANCESCAPES, MEDIASCAPES and IDEOSCAPES.
From a theoretical point of view, the most important fact is that these flows are DISJUNCTED, that is they are not automatically dependent one from the other on a deterministic line. Case by case, only empirical analysis can tell us what flow impinges on what, what is caused and what does cause.


Q1. Select any know social phenomenon of your interest (possibly something you already know about) and try an Appadurian reading by analysing it through the five -scapes.

59 commenti:

Marco Siniscalco ha detto...

Since childhood, the constantly changing world that we live in has always fascinated me, wanting to understand and explore the causes and effects of current and future human interactions.
The American anthropologist suggests five elements that support the global exchange of ideas and information. He designates these five factors “scapes”, which are fluid and constantly shifting, just as cultures are. Nevertheless, various realities exist within each of these dimensions, as an idea or image reshapes its context depending on the spectator. With the meaning of ideas reshaping in relation to the person ingesting them, we must then struggle with the existence of an “imagined world”, in which our reality is no more real than somebody else’s.
Migration is certainly a social phenomenon that can be analysed through the five-scapes. Migration is a tangled process and has been a peculiar characteristic of human societies for many centuries. People may decide to migrate for several causes, such as poverty, armed conflict, social strife, political turmoil, economic hardships and so on. These and other types of phenomena displace millions of people across the world every day. Migrants, moving from one place to another, bring with them typical features of their own culture, thereby bringing a new level of local identity. For instance, analysts usually ignore the meaningful contributions of immigrants to the formation of American culture through the performing arts, sciences, and other cultural pursuits.
Since the mid-twentieth century, nevertheless, the character of migration has also become deeply influenced by globalization. Developments in communication and transportation technology have brought globalization forward, permitting us to live in a world where distance between countries and travel time are no longer as significant an obstacle. Technology brings about new types of cultural interactions and exchanges; different networks relate people differently.
In this era of migration and globalization, the world’s economies have become more integrated. Therefore, for instance, it is now habitual for migrants to send remittances to their home country and, not unexpectedly, many developing nations depend on these funds.
Unfortunately, usually, media fails on the reporting of migrants. Journalists who report on the global migrant crisis usually fail to tell the entire story and regularly fall into propaganda traps laid by politicians. Around the globe, media coverage is frequently politically led.
In conclusion, first of all, because of the media (hate speech where malevolent anti-migrant statements fuel increasing public concern), most people in the world may perceive migrants as a threat.

martina forbicini ha detto...

In the first part of his article “Disjuncture and Difference in Global Cultural Economy”, Appadurai highlights how the modern world can be described as an interactive system more than ever before: it’s true that it has been an aggregation of large-scale interactions for many centuries but nowadays those interactions are characterized by a new order and a new intensity. In the author’s perspective, the current global cultural economy has to be seen as a complex organism, affected by disjunctures between economy, culture and politics that can be deeply understood only by analysing the relation among five dimensions of global cultural flows, which are the 5-scapes we’ve been discussing during the lessons. A clear example could be the widespread social phenomenon of “brain drain”: also known as the “human capital flight”, it refers to the emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals. Let’s imagine a woman that has just graduated from her master degree in Italy and is willing to begin working: after several attempts to find a job in her homeland, she receives an offer from a multinational enterprise in the USA. Therefore, she can be classified as an element of the ethnoscape: the landscape of moving persons that constitute the shifting world we live in. As it’s underlined in the text, because of the unstable interplay of commerce, media, national policies, consumer fantasies, ethnicity has now become a global force. Let’s suppose her area of expertise is software engineering: other people coming from all over the world and specialised in the same field have been hired by the same firm; the technological flow that result is very impressive. They all represent a relevant part of the so called technoscape: the global configuration of technology and the high speeds across various boundaries at which it moves. Her salary will constitute a pivotal factor of the finanscescape: on the one hand, some money is transferred back to the family of the country of origin while on the other hand, the “brain gain” is important for both the receiving and sending countries. In fact, money flows help in boosting the economic growth through increasing the circulation of global capital. Moreover, the desire of keeping in touch with the motherland is satisfied by making profit of media which guarantee, through the distribution of electronic capabilities, to produce and disseminate information. In talking about mediascapes, it’s hard not to mention the crucial role of providing a large repertoire of images to viewers throughout the world: the experience of narrative-based strips of reality through movies or television stations might have led the same woman to think of an imagined possible life in a foreign country, to the point she eventually decided to turn this dream into reality. After several months spent abroad she will probably compare ideas of freedom, welfare, rights in the two countries she’s been living: the chain of notions, concepts and the movements arising from the comparison represent elements of the ideoscapes. It follows that the world at large is composed by many intricate subsystems: it is a stage characterized by radical disjunctures between global flows and the uncertain landscapes created in and through these disjunctures.

emmanuel Krah Plarhar ha detto...

According to Appadurai’s frame of analysis which he gives five elementary frameworks suffixed “scapes”, he indicates that these five factors are not objectively given relations that look the same from every angle of vision but rather they are deeply perspective inflected by history, linguistic and political circumstances of different points. “Imagined worlds”, as he puts it and states that these landscapes are the building blocks of the world.
Using a social phenomenon, I would use myself as an example. By using Ethnoscape, thus, according to Appadurai, the movement of individuals across the world and me attaining an admission to study abroad. This is a massive movement from one continent to another and the crossing of huge boarders. Movement to other places can just be temporal or permanent and refugees or tourists are not only the people who move to other places but also movement might include workers and students. In this element, there is a flow all around the world and this can be because the world is changing due to migration. Me moving here to Italy, I came along with my culture, values and norms. These values I possess do not stay at one place but move. In one way or another I have attained some values and norms in the Italian society.
By using Technoscape, thus the movement of technology, this can be either mechanical or informational and this element of Appadurai’s analysis moves and spread faster. First of all how did I know about the program I am studying? It was through the internet and I was connected to different people all around the world. Facebook was available, Electronic mails were sent and even upon getting here I am still connected to different people. Cultures and values are shared through this element and it walks through the world. People stay connected also through this media and a typical example is how I connect all around the world with my relatives and love ones.
Financescape, thus, the rapid movement of global capital across the globe and this element is powerful because it contributes to the growth of various economies in the world. Sighting my example, after gaining admission, I had to pay an enrollment fee from my country to Italy. This is a perfect movement of money across countries. Exchange rates and other stuff also had to be considered.
Talking about Mediascape, it contributes to how information either prints or electronic media is shared across the globe. Getting to Italy I have heard much information about my country and other countries with the help of the media through newspapers, magazines and television. But not all information can be transmitted by the media. In the transmission process, not all information is being passed along and some information gets lost. As said in class, feeling cannot be transmitted through media because humans show emotions and it must be felt physically.
Ideoscapes being the movement of ideologies and according to Appadurai it is often political. I am now enlightened about how the world in terms of political ideologies and how various countries use their various policies to govern themselves and how they relate to other countries. I can also compare political entities both in my county and other countries and how power and rights of individuals are considered.



Lavinia Apicella ha detto...

One interesting social phenomenon that I would like to talk about and analyse through the Appadurian five-scapes method is traveling. To travel is to move from one place to another and the reasons for this movement could be many, from pleasure to work or duty. People have been traveling now for thousands of years, so it isn’t something new for us human beings. What has changed is that economic, technological and industrial progress of the society have created new means for traveling, and this has re-shaped both the dimension and the meaning of this social phenomenon. While in the past, traveling was something that mainly only people belonging to upper social classes could afford and this meant that fewer people engaged in this activity, nowadays it has become quite the opposite: in fact, traveling has become something common for many people because of the easiness through which it can be accessed. The reasons that push people to travel, abroad or within their own countries, have changed as well as a consequence of the social transformations that have occurred during the past centuries. The desire of men to go beyond what is near and throw themselves into the unknown has always been the main incentive though.
So, if we want to apply the Appadurian approach, traveling cannot only be linked to the creation of many different ethnoscapes, causing flows of people to move around the world without staying fixed in one place: in fact, this social phenomenon is strictly connected and influenced by the media as well, which can be considered a powerful tool of communication and through which both images and the ideas linked to those images can be easily spread. Both the TV and the Internet are full of advertisements and videos that show us beautiful beaches or mountains on the other side of the world, conveying easily the advantages of traveling within a commercial framework. However, as we discussed in class, despite the fact that mediascapes are very influential, they can’t transport all types of information. That is because ideas and moral notions, for instance, have to be based on face-to-face interaction. Besides, traveling contributes greatly to financescapes as well, since it causes huge flows of money to move around the globe. Technology has a crucial role in traveling too, and its evolution has influenced the way we see traveling.

Francesco Bono ha detto...

Eating Asian/fusion cousin is getting quite common in Italy and many restaurants are opening overnight, underlying an increasingly immigration from Asian countries. Nowadays, moving to another country is not as complex as it was in the past. Technological advances allow migrants to maintain effective relations with relatives and friends in their home-countries. Moreover, technological advances modified sources of representations, which are increasingly becoming monopoly of the individuals, rather than monopoly of the states. Both of two features enable migrants to avoid a complete integration in the new country as it happened not so long ago. They manage the citizenship of their own imagined/transnational land, made both of aspects of their home place and of their new one. To them, opening a restaurant in Italy means a complex finacescape, because they contribute to the Italian GDP, but they also send money back home to their family. Even their ethnoscape is quite interesting to be analysed. Many Japanese restaurants in Italy are held by Chinese people: it means that they live cooking a different cuisine from their own one, re-elaborating it through their Chinese culture and trying to adapt it to the Italian taste. As Chinese migrants in Europe, they surely face differences in ideoscapes: as we read in the article by Hanna Barczyc during Political Systems classes, Chinese government is working hard to sell abroad the idea of a great success in poverty alleviation as an exclusive result of institutional policies, in order to increase the western perception that the government is improving in the respect for Human Rights. Realising this strategy would be such a shock for the Chinese restaurant owners, who are deeply aware that mostly Chinese people lift out themselves from poverty, and especially that no policy ever mentioned Human Rights in China. Indeed, it is an example of the diaspora of a western ideological key-words which cannot match a correlated idea in such a different culture. Moreover, if the Chinese government was able to create such a story in western people’s minds, that is also because of the curios role of mediscape: media are a powerful vehicle of images and concepts, but they lose something, since they do not allow a real view for the audience. This is why the further the audience is from the fact, the easier it can build up fantastic and imagined representations of it.

clara saglietti ha detto...

According to Appadurai’s general theory of cultural processes, today culture can be described by the three macro-metaphors of “fractals”, “polythetic classification” and “chaos theory”, as it can be divided into many homothetic subsets that somehow overlap influenced by uncertain, random and often unpredictable dynamics. In particular, such dynamics create disjunctures between economy, culture and politics and are driven by context-dependent relationships among flows of people, technologies, finance, information and ideology. As culture is acquired through either experience or representation and the technological revolution is drastically changing both our sources of representation and culture indirectly, it may be interesting to study a social/political phenomenon result of globalisation, considering the five dimensions of global cultural flows.
In “Epistemologies of the South”, Boaventura de Sousa Santos claims it is possible to distinguish two kinds of globalisation: hegemonic globalisation and counter hegemonic globalisation. The first one can be considered a globalisation “from above” that impose itself with a “globalized localism”, such as the process by which a given local phenomenon is successfully globalized and a “localized globalism”, meaning the specific impact of transnational practices and imperatives on local conditions that are thereby deconstructed and reconstructed in order to respond to transnational imperatives. The second type of globalisation is “from below” and is constituted by “common heritage of human kind”, namely issues that only make sense when referred to the globe in its entirety and “subaltern cosmopolitanism” or “cosmopolitanism of the oppressed”, that is the cross-border solidarity among groups that are exploited, oppressed, or excluded by hegemonic globalization. These ideals were followed by the members of the “alter-globalisation” movement with their slogan “another world is possible” and in particular among them Chiapas revolted against Mexico with the Zapatis insurrection of 1994. At the beginning, they were only indigenous people from the Tzotzil, Tzeltal and Tojobal groups asking for democratization and improvement of the appalling living conditions with a manifesto made up of ten points: work, land, shelter, nutrition, health, education, liberty, democracy, justice and peace.
However, they quickly attracted activists, journalists and intellectuals from all over the world, enriching the diversity of the “ethnoscape”, the landscape of shifting people that migrate across borders and cultures for an indefinite period of time, influencing politics among and between different Nation-States. Furthermore, they also managed to attract fluxes of capital from abroad, namely the "financescape", with the donations of the supporters who couldn’t join the protest.
This was possible thanks to a wise use of technologies and media by the rebels: they took advantage of the internet, the radio and the public communications of the Subcomandante Marcos to generate international solidarity with possible sympathisers including people, organisations and even rap-rock bands. Thus, in the global fluid configuration, technology speeded across unexpected boundaries, arriving among indigenous tribes that were refusing it, and this "technoscape" involved also the "mediascape" as the new technologies were used to disseminate information to a wide audience, shaping the understanding and imagination of the world.
In fact, the Zapatist revolution is not only marked by a strong "ideoscape", the global flow of ideologies inspired to communism and anarchism, but it is mainly an exercise of imagination concretised. This is a proof, exactly like in the case of the MAAM, of how powerful “social imagination” can be in shaping their world (“a mundo donde quepan muchos mundos”) creating a real “imaginary world”.

elettra schininà ha detto...

At the beginning of the article “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy” is highlighted the main problem of today: the tension between homogenization and cultural heterogenization. The Elements propose to explore this “situations” are the relationships between five dimensions of global cultural flow, termed as: 1. Ethnoscapes 2.Mediascapes 3. Technoscapes 4.Financescapes and 5. Ideoscapes. Scape as suffix is linked to the fact that these are not objectively given relations which look the same from every point of view, but rather that they are deeply perspectival and inflected by the historical, linguistic and political situatedness of different types of actors. The Phenomenon that I would like to analyze through an Appadurian reading is a wing of migration: the one that students do.
For example guys like us. We are studying at Global Governance principally to move away from Italy, if not forever for a long time. Everyone of us, has his\her own motivations. But while you are moving from your country to another, you’re bringing with you, the typical features of your own culture and you are also going to “absorb” the ones of the new country you are going to be in. In this way you’re developing a local identity that will enrich you, and the next person you’ll going to meet. Probably, with your new local identity, you’re going to “affect” only the persons that will share days with you, but thanks to the new discoveries, the globalization and the ability of media, you’re going to “touch” those who hasn’t followed you. Moreover than the mediascapes, in this field, the technoscapes have a very important role. The new technology brought us new types of cultural interactions that permit us to build networks across the whole world. Also the economy has its role. The parents integrate money to the new country in which their children are, in order to help them and permit them to live and study. Many nations earn sustainable founds from the payment of universities. For example in America and England used to ask higher fees to foreigner students. As last but not least the ideoscape of the migration of students could be the idea that you’ll find all you need immediately, instead it depends on your efforts and your own skills.

Federica Barbera ha detto...

In this entry I would like to tell a brief story since I have understood that through tales and stories the concept that you want to explain suddenly becomes clearer and more understandable to others. The love story that I going to tell you is about ethnic differences, technologies and social phenomena. Ciro and Ingrid now live together in a small village on the sud-tirol’s Alpes. But you are not here to listen to their current daily life but to know about how they met. Four years ago Ciro was a 26 year old young man who liked having fun and hang out with friends until dawn. He was born and raised in the sunny Naples among the chaotic streets of the city. He has a big passion though: he loves Harley-Davidson motorbikes. Meanwhile Ingrid is an independent woman who loves playing the piano and reading books. She was born and raised in San Candido and she can speak both Italian and German. She has a big passion though: she loves Harley-Davidson motorbikes. The destiny decided that they would have met when both took the decision to participate to a motorbike festival in Bologna. Now let’s leave our characters in the messy atmosphere of a fair and focus for a while on the 5-scapes of Appadurai.

Federica Barbera ha detto...

Ethnoscape is maybe the one that can be more easily understood. During this social phenomena in which a lot of people meet and exchange ideas is common that different cultures get in contact. In my story I presented two pure Italians but with completely different backgrounds and cultures which constitute the ethnoscape. For sure when visiting a new city you bring with you your habits but you will be also curious about knowing and practising the local traditions. For example it is a pity going to Bologna and not participating to its active nocturne life by going to pubs to have a drink or to listen to music. In the era of social networks and of compulsive share of pictures and thoughts through posts, it is impossible to avoid the creation of a Mediascape. In fact through media the same event managers want, in order to have success, to gain as much visibility as possible. It is sufficient to share a picture or a post containing an hashtag and the system will create for you the net of mediascape that you are looking for. We have not considered yet all the financial transaction and exchange that a big social event implies: the participant have to eat and to find a place in which they can stay at night moreover they need to use public transportation or the national railways to get to the meeting point which constitute financialscape. Also technology plays it role: we are talking about more and more sophisticated amplification technologies for concert but even the fact that people during the motorbike festival could share the new technologies(technoscape) applied to their vehicles and improvise mechanic tutorials. Alongside those latter four we can analyse also ideoscape which can be defined as the flow of ideologies. In fact it can be said that during the fair you can meet either people with other cultures but also with different ideologies no matter if they are religious ethical or political. Now just to give an happy ending to my story I will conclude briefly. Thanks to the motorbike fair and to the level of diversity there present, Ciro and Ingrid were able to meet each other and now they have the possibility to build a bright future together riding their beautiful motorbikes.

Silvia Marcelli ha detto...

FIRST PART
The first part of Appadurai's work,“Disjuncture and Difference in Global Cultural Economy”, the author presents the central problem of his analysis: the conflict between cultural homogenization versus cultural heterogenization, arguing that the globalised world in which we live in cannot be defined as a "global village" (quoting Mr. Mcluthan) where everybody feels to be "bound" to each other, but rather as communities created by the media, lacking the "sense of place". Thus the modern world cannot be defined as an interactive system, despite the fact that in the last century there has been a very large-scale interaction between different countries. However, nowadays, those interactions are characterized by new factors, a new intensity, and new orders. Moreover, Appadurai defines the new global cultural economy as a complex, disjunctive order, no more possible to be understood following the old models and orders. From the result of this analysis, he then proposed 5 dimensions of global cultural flows, in order to study such disjuncture in the global cultural economy: ethnoscapes; mediascapes; technoscapes; financescapes; ideoscapes.
I proposed that an example of a social phenomenon which can represent those dimensions: migration. As we all well-known migration is not a nowadays phenomenon, it is something that has always been present in the human history. Migrants escape from their homeland for several different reasons like poverty, social strife or war. However, I am not going to analyze migration in the broader sense but I am going to talk about one subset, in a way, of such phenomenon. Indeed I would like to take into consideration those individuals who decide to move out their country to find jobs somewhere else, leaving their families and children in their home country. Just this first step is an example of the ethnoscape dimension: groups of people moving around affecting the "home features" of the host nations. They constitute a very important element of the globalized world and are a representation of the shifting world in which we live in. Migrants go to a new place bringing their "home-acquired culture" with them. Then in the new place they, of course, will both incorporate new elements and also affect the host environment. Then when, eventually, they will move forward to another place they will bring with them not only their home features but also the newly acquired ones, leaving the old host place affected by their passage.Thus, they will keep collecting new features while moving around up to the point where they will no longer know where they belong to.

Silvia Marcelli ha detto...

SECOND PART.
The same process happens in the technoscape dimension: thanks to this new global configuration of the world, technologies move at "high speed" across the globe without boundaries, and the migration flows are a further implementation of this phenomenon. Indeed migration causes a higher circulation of technological means, especially to guarantee a way of communication with their families left "home". This last point can be easily analyzed also in terms of mediascapes. If we consider once again the example of a migrant moving abroad, leaving his/her family and children behind in order to find a job, we can easily predict that individual will provide a large circulation of images, videos and so on, through social media and other platforms, to be able to, in a way, keep in touch with his/her relatives at home and at the same time being always sort of presents in their daily lives. In terms of the ideoscape, a migrant moving out his country, especially nowadays, is always submitted to the ideology of the host State: the issues that are arising with the migration phenomenon of today are linked with that chains of ideas such as freedom, rights, welfare etc., that we always ear and which find their simplification in the term democracy. This latter is assuming a very extremist meaning toward the flows of migrants coming in: those individuals are now seen as some kind of enemies, coming to our country to, in some sense, "stole it". Such ideology allowed the shift of migration from a historical social phenomenon toward the definition of a "problem to be solved". Going back to Appadurai's 5 dimensions, we must say that those landscapes are necessary in order to build the "imagined world": as international capital shifts, technological development creates different needs, as States make new policies on refugees populations, such moving groups are left with nothing else that their imagination skills. I will conclude analyzing this last point once again in the framework of migration. As I said before those individuals will keep moving to new places until the point in which they will no longer have a place of belonging. In this scenario, the imagination becomes their homeland, their only place in which they can identify themselves. The only sources to build such world are found in the 5 Appadurai's landscapes.

Melani Perera ha detto...

According to the Appaduri’s analyzing an elementary framework for exploring such disjuncture is t look at the relationship between five dimensions of global cultural flow which can be termed, Ethnoscape, Mediascape, Technoscape, Finanscape and Ideoscape. This use terms with the common suffix scape to indicate first of all that these are not objectively given relations which look the same from every angle of vision, but rather that they are deeply perspectival constructs, inflected very much by the historical, linguistic and political situatedness of different sorts of actors, nation-states, multinationals, diasporic communities as well as sub-national groupings and movements, and even intimate face-to-face groups, such as villages, neighborhoods and families.
When talk about the ethnoscape, I think travelling is not a new thing for people nowadays. Because many people travelling to place to place or country to country for their own reasons and their needs. As a student I came to Italy to do my higher studies. When we see about history we can see people travelled to country to county for many reasons also in those days. So, it is not a new thing for human beings. Only thing is economic, the way of travelling and technology has changed. Also, nowadays many people tend to travel rather than past, because of the easiness to travel and the social transformation. So, this can affect to the other people that we meet from the other countries through the cultural way. Because all the people who travel has their own culture, values and norms and also, they are affect by the cultural things and values from the countries where they are travel.
The technoscape means, the movements of the technology. Appadurai’s analysis, the fact that technology, both high and low, both mechanical and informational, how moves at high speeds across various kinds of previously impervious boundaries. So, the new technology brought us to a new type of cultural interaction and it permit us to build networks across the whole world. This mainly refers to the internet. We all have connect with the different people from the different countries, cultures, loved ones and also with the relatives through the internet (face book, twitter ect.). Not only, connect with the people but also, find information about all over the world and we can keep in touch those tins because of the technoscape. As an example, I found out the information about my university through the internet. So, cultures and values are shared through this element and its connect, whole the world together.

Melani Perera ha detto...

The other useful thing to talk about the finanscape. The critical points that the global relationship between ethnocape, technoscape and finanscape is deeply disjunctive and profoundly unpredictable since each of these landscapes is subject to its own constraints and incentives at the same time as each act as a constraint and a parameter for movements in the other. Economy is the one of main role in ethnoscape. As an example, I came here to do my studies, and my parents spend money for my university fees and other expenses. So, we spend our money to another country for our studies. Spend money from country to another country happen by the migration of students, as well as another reason like a business.
Talking about mediascape is very important in nowadays. Because media has a high place in the world. If I say, one of the main reason people are tend to travel is media, it is totally true. Because we can watch many things, we can know and read many things about the other countries through the media. When we see those things naturally, cravings arise in us. Also, if we are in a foreign country, from that country, we can keep in touch with our birth country through the media such as, newspapers, television ect. But all the information cannot get from the media as we learnt in our anthropology lesson, because, some can lose.
The last one is ideoscaape. Ideoscapes are also concatenations of images, but they are often directly political. Normally, countries use their various policies to govern themselves. Also, the people can compare the differences of the political systems in different countries as the feel or according to their knowledge. So, it depends on their efforts and their own skills.

Riccardo Santini ha detto...

Appadurai is aware of the big globalization phenomenon which is taking place, resulting in the re-imagining of communities, which are no longer so much tied to a particular geographic place.
He proposes five –scapes through which we can better understand the issue of deterritorialization, resulting in populations moving to other countries, reproducing their ethnic culture in a deterritorialized context.
I would say that the racism and segregation resulting from apartheid could be analyzed through the different –scapes (ethnoscapes, mediascapes, technoscapes, financescapes, ideoscapes). Racist legislation indeed forced removals of people from their homes on a massive scale. Ethnic distinction therefore made people, most of the time unwillingly, migrate across borders, undermining their freedom and forcing them to settle in a deterritorialized context.
In the apartheid era, channels of information – whether the press, TV, or radio – reflected the situation at that time and did not denounce the injustices on black people, but instead dwelled on the violence committed by them, therefore creating an increasing pervasive reality which contributed to their oppression. Moreover, white Africans exploited the technological advancement to carry out racial registrations in order to identify black people and confine them. Such rapid development of technology increased the speed of the apartheid oppression. In addition, the black community severely suffered from economic divisions and lack of assets and investments, radically shaping the economy of the time. Finally, the global movement of ideologies which shaped the apartheid grew stronger and stronger, raising regional and international supporters, fueling the oppression and segregation of black people.
Through these different disjunctures, we are able to detect how the movement of people, information, technology, finance and ideas strongly contribute to shape the culture of a community and the image perceived, which of course can change overtime, leading to different movements.

gloria paronitti ha detto...

FIRST PART
My father is now living in another country because of his job. Here, he works for a society in which many foreigners are hired, and since it is a job that requires a long time to be spent in the office and lot of teamwork, people of different countries, far from their home, are creating strong relationship based on work in order to easily create relations and do not feel completely alone in a new city. By working in such a context you also know that you will not have a "stable base" for many time. One year you are resident in a country, the following one in a different one. And moreover, you are required to travel in order to control and synchronize different branches, so that my father has been to London, Marrakech and Rome all together in the last week. This is asked not only to him, but to most of the employee, so that the number of people that this company is able to move is very huge.
My father has been required to become acquainted with technology (that is both mechanical and informational) for many reasons: it is a fundamental tool to communicate and exchange data with colleagues in the other part of the world, as it can be also a way of escaping one or two long and tiring trips during his work week. It is a fundamental tool to maintain also his personal relations with friends and family. It is not comparable to having a bodily relation, but it is better than nothing, although some pieces of information get lost. And this discourse is equal for all people that work there: spread of technology is a cause of globalization, and now knowing how to handle it is necessary for "surviving". You must know how to use it in order to work, and it is the only way to preserve your affections if you are far. Moreover, the use of technology is being introduced even in the most traditional workplaces, so that my mother that is a teacher, has learnt its basic both in order to work and in order to maintain a sort of contact with my father. Same for my grandfather, that despite his age, has learnt the basic uses of a phone to contact his son.

gloria paronitti ha detto...

SECOND PART.
Regarding finances, my father is the fulcrum through which many movements of money pass. First he is used to send us home some money, but sometimes, less often it happens the contrary, and my mother has to send money to him in this other country. My father is an Italian that contributes to the GDP of another country, but at the same time he pays also Italian taxes for me, my mother and my sister. And when he travels for work, he usually moves and spend the money of his company in another faraway country. So the company in itself is a huge displacer of money, not only through ICT tools but also through people.
Regarding media, I think this is a very important resource for whoever is abroad. It is a way of keeping contact not with the people that you miss, but with the place where you come from. It is a way to still feel part of your "Imagined Community". I know that my father watches Italian news or read Italian newspapers more often than the ones of his new country, that actually regards him more. And I also know that even if he is not interested in what Rai 1 is broadcasting that night, he won't change channel because it is the only Italian one that the TV receives. Moreover, media are an important tool for him: both the ones that he creates (photos, videos etc.) and the news from the TV and newspapers. Trough them he is trying to convey the message to my mother that where he lives is a better place than Rome, because in his heart he hopes she will join him sooner or later. Obviously what he tries to show is a fictional reality, it does not correspond to the real one. So we tend to have in my family an image of this city that is distorted, we misinterpret some of its features. We can say that his company makes a similar use of media: it use them to be better known by the world, for this reason lot of money are spent in advertisements. And the image that they try to convey is always the best possible one. Media became in this way a distorted source of representation for people around the world.
In conclusion, I should try to analyze this story through an ideoscape, that is related to politics. I would say that my father has chosen to go and live there, leaving his family behind, also due to the political image conveyed: a healthier country, were the welfare is higher and citizens have a better life and support than in Rome.

Riccardo Poggioli ha detto...

The social phenomena that immediately comes in my mind when I have to link these ideas and concepts by Appadurai is migration, since I don’t want to be boring with a general description of the migration nowadays I will try to describe the migration from a personal point of view, describing what happened to my older cousin some years ago. After the graduation from university he started his struggling to find a job in order to properly fulfill what he studied at university. He did some part time jobs but none of them was near to what he expected. One day when almost lost the hopes to find a decent job, he received an e-mail containing a job offer proper to his studies, from a company in a city near London. After some waverings he decided that he was the right path to follow in order to try to reach his dreams. He spent two years in England, the he went in Australia where he found another opportunity. Finally after these working experiences and wanderings around the globe he managed to come back in Italy where he finally got a job in which he could be employed work for what he studied, also because of the work experience he had abroad.
Now that everybody know the story I try to put it in the frame of Appadurai especially in what he defines as the “Five dimensions of Global cultural flow” that is to say the five Escapes. Appadurai proposes five factors that contribute to the global exchange of ideas and information. He labels these five dimensions “-scapes,” which are fluid and constantly shifting, just as cultures are.
Ethnoscapes refers to the migration of people across cultures and borders, and in the case of my cousins he is involved in this process since he travelled through different countries and he knew different cultures during his journey to reach his aim.
Technoscapes are related to the role of the new technology within the role of the cultural interactions and exchanges, and in the case of Federico(my cousin) technology had a role of primary importance, in fact thanks to technology he had the possibility to interact with a lot of people and through internet he received the ‘famous’ and desiderable job offert which had brought him to England.
Financescapes are related to distinction of the various disjunctures or disconnections between economy, culture and politics, within the overall global economy, in his case through the different works he made abroad he became part of the mechanism.
Mediascapes can be understood as the many media outlets (television, radio, newspaper, etc) that shape the “imagined world” we inhabit, where narratives and images are often the only way one forms an opinion about a place or culture. In our socialized world you cannot avoid to be in a within the net of social media, and my cousins used social media as a way to communicate to create a kind of report of his experience.
Ideoescapes is referred to the movement of ideas , thoughts and ideologies, and in the case of Federico it perfectly fits since when he left Italy to go to England he had some kind of ideas, which were affected by the environment he lived in, then the same happened when he moved to Australia. Finally when he returned in Italy he was a different person compared to the one that left Italy years before, because he was influenced by the experiences and the different surrounding environment in which he lived.

Marianna Sabatini ha detto...

In his article "Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy", Appadurai proposes a model for exploring the disjunctures that come from the complexity of the current world, and this model looks at the relationship between five dimensions: ethnoscapes, technoscapes, mediascapes, finanscapes, ideoscapes. A phenomenon that can be perfectly analyzed through this model is students leaving for Erasmus. Every year this program allows thousands of students to live and study in a foreign country for a semester or a year. So the continuos flow of students leaving and coming in another country is the ethnoscape.
The project Eramus+ was born in 1987 but it is only in the last decade that it has become a sort of cultural phenomenon among students and I think that this could be given by the recent and fast technological development that gives us the possibility to be constantly updated about what happens in other parts of the world and to reach very far places in a quite short time. This evolution of the technoscape has probably made the students less anxious about the possibility of living abroad alone. The mediascape - the distribution of the electronic capabilities - has an influence as well, because through it students can get information about the different countries, they can use social media in order to communicate with other students that have already participated in the Erasmus project and they can communicate with their families and friends during the period abroad.
There is also a flow of money among countries because families will send money to the students and they will spend it in the country they are living in. So this money will leave a country and will be used in another one and this is part of the finanscape.
About the ideoscape, all the students coming back home after the Erasmus claim to have changed their perspective on many aspects of their lives because different countries mean different values and different ways of life.

Oliver Tomassi ha detto...

A social phenomenon that is interesting to analyse through an Appadurian reading is terrorism. Since technology drives the dynamics of today's society, it does not come to a surprise that also terrorism benefits from it. The web has become a remarkable environment for terrorists to find resources, make propaganda, find recruits and in addition it has become a platform from which real life attacks can be launched. The "modern terrorism" we are facing today is a global threat that along with mass murders hits directly the global public and brings fear into people's homes. This connects our technoscape to a mediascape. As a matter of fact, as Roberto Saviano noticed, the Islamic State knows how to use the web and the Media to its advantage. They share pictures of Isis soldiers showing themselves with their faces covered, not out of fear of being identified but as a symbol of belonging to a community. Videos of executions and photos depicting fighters with weapons are also exploited abundantly along with an immense exposure of luxury like expensive cars or big houses, so to show that organised terrorism is not only a life of violence and death, but also one of wealth and ease. Organised terrorism by doing this does an exceptional work in fostering their activity and gathering recruits. It is almost a vision of life, it's an ideoscape. Through the exploitation of the media they persuade the audience that adhering to organised terrorism means fulfilling one's desires, living longer lives and finding the social approval from someone. When Paris was militarily attacked in 2015, the gain that the organisation was looking for was not territorial, but ideological, indeed it is true that through communication they conquered "kilometres and kilometres of web land". The impact that this "social behaviour" has had on global flows is enormous: the ethnoscape of the Middle East has drastically changed, millions of people were forced to flee their homes due to the war in Syria and have therefore also altered the ethnoscape and politics of their destinations like Turkey and Europe. But Terrorism does not move only people: enormous sums of capital are also shifted all around the world. By exploiting oil fields and selling the product around the world, terrorism profits immense sums of money. At the same time they trigger the production of weapons which come from different parts of the world and therefore they become actors in shaping financescapes by moving significant capital flows across countries and continents.

Nicolas Dietrich ha detto...

Arjun Appadurai, in his most famous article Disjuncture and Differences in the Global Cultural Economy, affirms that the new global cultural economy has to be regarded as a “complex, overlapping and disjunctive order” due to “disjunctures between economy, culture and politics”. To understand these disjunctures, he elaborated an elementary framework suggesting to look at the relationship between five dimensions of the global cultural flow: ethnoscapes, mediascapes, technoscapes, finanscapes and ideoscapes.

To illustrate these concepts by a concrete example of social phenomenon, let us take the one of Western people joining the ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) in order to do the holy war, i.e. the jihad. Even if it is not a real migration (e.g. not the same as the Italians going to the US), I think it is interested to analyze it through Appadurai’s theory. Moreover, it is a globalized phenomenon because the terrorist group achieved to attract people from various horizons, religions and origins. We will focus more precisely on young French people originally from Maghreb. It is to notice that they do not represent at all the majority of people leaving Europe to go to Syria and Iraq, but some similarities can be found among them. To understand this phenomenon, we will thus use the five scapes mentioned previously.

In this case, the ethnoscape is relatively clear. We speak of people whose parents or grand-parents have emigrated to France, mostly from old colonial territory, such as Algeria, seeking for job opportunities. These young people, however, cannot find their place in the French society. In fact, they do not feel neither French nor the nationality of their parent’s countries. While they are regarded as Arabs by the society, they are regarded as French when they are in the Maghreb. ISIS, by using a cutting-edge propaganda on the media (mediascape) offers them the image of belonging to a community (ideoscape): if they come and fight with the terrorist group, they will be members of the community. Thanks to the actual level of technology (technoscape) which enables a high level of cultural interactions, it was easy for ISIS to spread its ideology thanks social networks, YouTube channels and even a news channel. Moreover, to achieve its aims, ISIS sends a lot of money across borders (Finanscape) to attract foreigners and offers money to the new combatants when they arrive. Thus, we have seen that ISIS is a model of migrations that can be represented thanks to Appadurai’s theory. In a certain sense, it is comparable to other migrations (e.g. Italians to the US) in the fact that both communities were looking for a better life. By offering to these socially lost people a social imaginary of a better life, they attract people from all over the world.

Ganna Korniychenko ha detto...

The article introduce an innovative multidisciplinary approach to analyze social phenomena. It is very useful because it allows a global picture and a complete vision of the issue. I decided to write about unemployment because I feel it very close to me and many young friends.
Unemployment of young people represents a big issue nowadays in Italy.
Ethnoscape approach: it moves foreign people to do social works and substitute Italian employees in many industries. Stagnation of some social works need to be managed in order to involve as more as young people. Globalization is strongly linked to the work market but if managed in an inappropriate way can create tension among people of different nationalities.
Technoscape approach : machines take place of many workers in terms of production process. The fast technological and digital progress ‘’lows’’ the number of work places but on the other side creates new ones which requires specific digital and technical competences. The right training of employees will raise competences and awareness on many workers.
Financescape approach: the low salary offered to young people are not sufficient for the cost of living. Young generation need to receive the right monetary compensation without being exploited from financial point of view. This will generate trust and willing to work (avoinding social alienation).
Mediascape approach : media often speak about unemployment issue by writing percentages on tv screens or on newspapers. The pension reform has to be properly done in order to leave the necessary space to young employees.
Ideoscape approach: the social discourage of young people force them to rely on relatives or parents and this phenomena represents an obstacle for their personal growth. The idea to create a wonderful career belongs to very few of the young generation . Politics is not able to implement the right reforms in order to face the 43% of unemployment it the country; the proposals always go in to the wrong direction of precariousness as vouchers and short.-terms contacts did during the last period.

Cristina Bottoni ha detto...

A social phenomenon is something that involves the observable behavioural aspects of a person that influences another person. In such a society we live nowadays, in which social interactions are brought to the exponential level both on a national and an international level, it is pretty easy to find fitting examples. Social interactions start a network of butterfly effects that are chained one with the other. The citizens does not exist in himself, he exist as a part of the whole, part of a nation, part of a society.
Everything we do is not merely driven by self-motivation and or self-reason but is the result of the behaviour of some people that have influenced you in some way, and it will be a premise for further influences that the citizen himself will make on another person.
Once understood that we live in a world of local and global interactions, we have to introduce the concept of ‘globalization’: according to Appadurai, it can be defined as process in which some elements of a culture penetrate into another one, both indigenous or not.
The main problem in today’s society is the homogenization as the central product of globalization: it consists in a commodification, an Americanization, the so-called ‘market for everything’. In today’s world, every human activity can be commoditized and in this way, we are losing the natural human instinct of doing things just because they are right, fair and enjoyable. This leads to a disjunction between economy, culture and politics. To analyse this disjunction, Appadurai theorizes this concept by introducing a five level model based on five “scapes” (from the Greek verb σκοπέω pron. skopeō), meaning five filters, five ways to see any social phenomenon: ethnoscape, technoscape, financescape, mediascape, ideoscape.
Thinking at an example of social phenomenon that could be analysed according to the five “scapes”, I was surprised of this model could be applied on almost everything of our daily life. Today I would talk about marriage. The conception of marriage has changed with respect to the one our parents and grandparents had, especially among new generations. Nowadays, less and less people decide to take this vow for the rest of their life (at least this is the intention). Carrying out an ethnoscape analysis (the growing movement of peoples into one another), I would say that in the world of today finding a job in your mother country is rare and with limited options, so young people are ‘forced’ in some ways to find it abroad. This leads to instability and unsureness about life and the future: due to the uncertain working position, people are not thinking about marrying, especially at a young age. The financescape is strongly connected with the ethnoscape because it deals with the economic field and the market, which is a fundamental activity for human beings. People who migrate in order to find jobs have not an optimal and sure financial position: for this reason they are pushed to postpone the idea of marriage.
The technoscape approach deals with the growing spread of technology. Today we live in an era in which the technology has reached any corner of the globe, any working place, any house. Especially the social network world has spread all over the world and people are keeping posting their everyday life on the web (in some sense opening it to the world). In this way, a private thing such as marriage is no more considered as something personal but is commoditized through sharing it with the world: in this way, it is totally deprived from its true meaning.
Thinking about the mediascape, the first thing that come into my mind is the fact that today we live in an era in which the life of the VIPs is on the spotlight. They, because of various reasons, do not manage to be involved in long marriages and divorces are on the VIPs’ daily agenda. People who are used to see these kind of things are perceived to think that marriage is not something that is meant to last and it only brings problems. The ideoscape of the society is in this way completely altered.

Zikang Zhang ha detto...

According to Appadurai’s article, the complexity of the current global economy has to do with certain fundamental disjunctures between economy, culture and politics, which has to be understood as a complex, overlapping, disjunctive order. And for exploring such disjunctures can be looked as an elementary framework, looking at the relationship between five dimensions of global cultural flow which can be termed-- ethnoscapes; mediascapes; technoscapes; finanscapes and ideoscapes.
Take the social phenomenon of studying abroad as an example. Now many students will leave their own country, go out of their hometown and go to another country for study and exchange. Due to the progress of socio-economic, technological and communication means, more convenient conditions have been created for foreign students. And as students become increasingly dissatisfied with the desire to learn more in their own country, the desire to acquire more knowledge also grows. By 'ethnoscapes', that is the landscape of person who constitutes the shifting world in which we live. As a student, we learn from one continent to another. With the advent of 'study abroad fever' in recent years, students are mobilized around the world. Studying abroad brings students of different nationalities together, which shows many different ethnoscapes, and these ethnoscapes are interlinked and affected. This kind of social phenomenon is also related to the media at the same time. Nowadays, the network is developing rapidly. Websites, news, TV, etc. can be found in various media anytime, anywhere. Through these media, we can find the profession we want to study, the right school, the country we want to go to. This is 'mediascapes'. On the other hand, the media can not afford morality and thought, which requires face-to-face communication. At the same time, it is no longer difficult for technoscapes to move from one country to another. It takes less time and costs to be reduced, which also helps students better choose countries to study. Following people move, money flows is moving too. 'Finanscapes' is influenced by the students, their parents will give their children living expenses, tuition fees and so on. There will be a rapid flow of funds around the world to help local economic growth. What is more, 'ideoscapes', are composed of elements of the Enlightenment world-view, which consist of a concatenation of ideas, terms and images. When an international student arrives in another country, his or her own ideological and local differences can differ, Over time, living in another place for a long time, some of his ideas will be affected by the local environment to take the initiative to adapt to local ideas and tend to be consistent.

Francesca Scanavini ha detto...

The social phenomenon that I would like to analyse through the five-scapes of Appadurai is the one of the social networks that are increasingly and rapidly taking part of our everyday lives. But, before starting to look at this reality through the different lenses of the scapes, I find important to state that social networks can be considered one of the factors which increase the tension between cultural homogenization and heterogenization (mentioned by Appadurai) in our world and moreover, they are great contributors to the construction of imagined worlds around the globe. Obviously, referring to the technoscapes phenomena, they reflect the role of technology whose flows are nowadays reaching every corner of the world overcoming political, geographical and, often also, social boundaries. Moreover, by being a powerful tool for circulation of information, ideas and most importantly, images, they embody the phenomena of mediascapes and ideoscapes that increasingly spread representations of places of the world that sometimes also transmit perceptions that are very far from the reality. Often, those impactful images brought by the social networks shape and influence people’s opinion and views of different parts of the world to the extent that they can affect their movement. For this reason, it can be said that social networks are also deeply related to the flow of people around the world and therefore to the ethnoscapes dimension. By enabling people to communicate, exchange ideas and producing models of the real world they are strong determinant of a multitude of persons’ motion around the globe. Furthermore, concerning the financescapes, social networks are hiddenly increasing the “mysterious, rapid and difficult landscapes to follow” ( as Appadurai mentions ) of money by forging financial transfers through either advertising, publicizing and sponsoring businesses or by simply acting as a main influencer for consumers’ decision.

Sara Marcucci ha detto...

A social phenomenon that could be analyzed through the five Appadurian "-scapes", is the migration that took place after George W. Bush got re-elected in 2004.
There's also a movie that talks about it, called "Blue State". It tells about a guy, John Logue, that was volunteering for the John Kerry's campaign, and who pledges he will move to Canada if Bush wins the elections again. He gets filmed and goes on television so, when Bush actually wins, everybody expects him do move to Canada for real.
He also gets a call from marryacanadian.ca, a company that deals with people who want to get the Canadian citizenship by marrying a Canadian, and eventually accepts to leave the United States to start a new life in Canada.
Doing an Appadurian reading, I can identify John's move to Canada as an example of the Ethnoscape, that refers to the shifting landscape of people across culture and borders. The Technoscape is easily identifiable in the website that contacts John and that promotes the Canadian life style and culture through the internet.
Then, thinking of how John got the idea of moving to Canada, namely watching the news and learning about all those who were actually doing that or who had done that already, we can find the Mediascape.
John changing the currency is an example of Financescape, since it means the movement of money from one country to another.
Finally, John's ultimate decision to move abroad is due to his ideology, which he obviously brings with himself to Canada. He certainly contributed to the global circulation of ideas, shaped by our culture, our experience and our personality. Using the Appadurian "-scapes" as a filter through which interpreting things, the circulation of ideologies corresponds to the Ideoscapes.


Sara di fabio ha detto...

The phenomenon I would like to analyse through Appadurai’s -scapes is crime and acts of violence, which in the context of social phenomena are factors that particularly affect people’s behaviours or opinions.
For what concern the ethnoscape, crime and violence led to movement of people at small scale, for instance people that would choose a neighbourhood because they believe it is safer, this happens especially with families because parents want their children to live in a safe environment. However, violence affects the movement of people also at a regional or global level, for instance, war migrants escaping from the brutality of the war in their country.
Through the lenses of the technoscape, it is possible to analyse the shift from crimes in physical reality to crimes in virtual reality. Due to the advancement in technology we change the way we buy things, the way we save money and the way we invest them, this makes crime done in the physical reality obsolete, whereas more and more crimes are done via internet. The shift of ‘where’ crimes are done, is directly linked to the financescape (the flow of money), indeed the online crimes are mostly related to monetary transactions. This means that there is an online flow of money due to illegal activities, for instance in the dark web.
Ideoscape and mediascape are more related to the transmission of images. Images of crimes and violence are transmitted every day from radio stations, TV, newspapers etc. The circulation of images allows people to construct their own imagined worlds based on reporter’s perspectives. For instance, in Italy there was a period where people were overwhelmed with news about ‘extra communitari’ committing crimes, and it happened that some people tended to believe that the majority (if not all) of ‘extra communitari’ were criminals. Therefore, the images that circulate about crimes tend to affect beliefs and behaviours of people, meaning they influence the ideology of a neighbourhood, or a city, or a state, or even the world (if we take into consideration Islamic terrorism).

Selene G. ha detto...

The social phenomenon I have chosen to take is traveling or to be more precious being a tourist. I personally love to travel and have gained a lot of knowledge and experiences through many different cultures and countries. In Appadurian´s reading he explains the framework for a Global Cultural Economy with this he looks at the relationship between five dimensions of global cultural flow. Ethnoscapes, is the landscape of people who constitute the shifting world in which we live in, for us that is our tourist itself. He or she is part of a moving group that can affect international relations and politics around us. Technoscapes, is the fact that technology now moves fluidly across previous borders. In our case of the tourist this could be the laptop he buys while being in India or the GoPro he buys in the USA both things which he will take back home to his or her home country. The next dimension is Financescape, it is the fluid movement of global capital. Regarding this we can consider the money our tourist has earned while working at home and will now spend in his or her travel country of choice. His or hers new money will enter the local economy and keep the global capital moving this way. As Appadurian states in his reading, the relationship globally between our first three dimensions: Ethnoscapes, Tehcnoscapes and Financescapes are very unpredictable. The last two dimension are Mediascapes and Ideoscapes, for the Mediascape we have to concentrate on the immense amount of information which is available to a ever growing amount of people. But especially the way this can influence and impact viewers and with this create a movement. For our tourist this might be the news he or she hears about other countries before he or she decides on his country to travel to or information he or she reads online about the different countries. This information will influence his or her decision on where to spend his or her vacation. Ideoscapes, is the composition of elements of the world-view such as ideas, terms and images for example freedom, rights and democracy. Personally I don´t find it easy to connect this part to our traveling tourist but I would say he brings his own ideas and thought of what is right into a new country. He might have discussions with locals about what human rights is and of how he thinks a democracy should function. In addition, he might bring new ideas home to his country of things he learned while being abroad. To this point Appaardurian stresses the fact that there needs to be further analysis of how ideologies are interpreted differently in the global world.

Chiara Muzi ha detto...

According to the anthropologist A. Appadurai “ the new global cultural economy has to be seen as a complex, overlapping, disjunctive order that cannot anymore be understood in terms of existing center-periphery models, models of push an pull, surpluses and deficitis, consumer or producers” as the acceleration and the volume of the flows across the globe is now so relevant that the Appaduranian disjunctures (“the forces of cultural gravity pulling away from the formation of a large-scale ecumene”) have become central to the politics of global culture. He proposes five dimensions that can be helpful to analyse today’s global flows, namely: ethnoscape, mediascape, technoscape, financescape and ideoscape. The suffix -scape makes us understand that each of these categories has multiple possible points of view, they are not rigid universal categories, but they are influenced by history, language, politics… Using these five dimensions I would like to propose a brief analysis of a phenomenon that in the last decade is growing more and more: studying abroad. I believe that it is important to understand how and why more and more people decide to spend some time abroad for their studies, how this changes their mindset and ultimately what possible effect and contribution it brings to the global cultural economy. Starting from the ethnoscape, we should analyse who are the people that leave their houses to start higher education abroad and where they head to mostly: according to US news, since 2000 the percentage of foreign students in the US rose by 72%, while the number of American students leaving their country to study abroad more than doubled. Programs like Erasmus or Overseas allow students to move even for brief periods of time, not to talk about Asian students that are the ones probably moving more around the globe for their studies. If we imagine a map to draw the lines of this relocations we can observe that it is an East-West movement mainly, even if the increasing prestige of some Asian universities is determining a lighter but interesting opposite movement. People of more or less the same age but with very different backgrounds have therefore the possibility to live side by side: what must be consider however, is that these young people come from a certain social class, especially those students coming from countries with great inequalities. Are therefore these people so different? Like in the case we analysed in class of the old lady living in Trastevere and her foreign help, I wonder if the difference in culture are much more mitigated by the common belonging to the world’s upper-middle class (even if I’m not myself too convinced of its existence). This reasoning brings us to consider the financescape: in almost all the countries of the world higher education has a cost and the most prestigious universities invest a lot to attract the best minds on a planet-scale; moreover, from the point of view of the GDP of a country, having foreign students is absolutely positive. If migrants are often seen not to positively by some citizens, students do not receive such a treatment.
[Continues in the next post]

Chiara Muzi ha detto...


Let us now consider the ideoscape of this phenomenon: students arrive we their culture in the new country, decided to keep it, not only because many of them think about going back to their homeland eventually, but because away from home you need a sense of belonging, you feel neatly your identity as something separate from the “other”. However, with the passage of time, we have a two way “contamination” or “exchange”: we transmit and receive cultural stuff, and this global mixture of cultures opens to those exposed to it new perspectives and connections to the world. For what concerns mediascape, here perspective is essential: media are strictly connected with the nation they belong to, providing a defined point of view on things inside or outside the country of interest: changing this point of view can really provoke an earthquake in our minds; think for example to the concept of democracy in the West, how can inspire a Chinese student? Once people come back to their country, would they feel the need to change things? Can university be the new frontier of exporting democracy?
Finally let’s talk of technoscape: I believe they are an important tool for students, people curious about the world. Sharing of knowledge through technoscape is more and more common, faster and cheaper. This brings an advantage for everyone, but I think that the volume of this revolution will be clear only in the years to come.

Carlotta Frasca ha detto...

Arjun Appadurai's disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy differentiates and defines five main concepts: ethnoscapes, technoscapes, finanscapes, mediascapes, ideoscapes.
As I was thinking about an example that would group them all, I thought about my personal experience in Canada, and how those five ideologies actually influenced my life there.
When talking about ethnoscapes as a student representing an ethnic group the shifting phenomenon and movements, leaving a country to start a new experience somewhere else it is a literal representation of culture entering a new one.
Technoscapes and technology, made it really easy for me to feel home when I was homesick. In fact, it helped me reconnect with my family and the people I loved, and have a piece of them there with me.
The finanscapes, can be summarized by the financial stability that my parents assured me from Italy and the scholarship I received while I was there, giving me certainty and safety to be stable and able to take care of myself.
Medias and social media helped me to stay connected and informed about the italian situation while I was already aware of the situation that surrounded me, giving me a 360° view of the world I was living and the cultures that I was sharing.
And of course ideologically, I had the chance to grow as a person and it opened my views. People that connected with me added to my personal background new point of views and opened my eyes on some topics. It basically gave the tools to look at a topic and be able to step back and have different informations in order to make a choice and a statement that would represent me better as a human being.

Tamoi Fujii ha detto...

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has got its Headquarters in Rome (zona Circo Massimo) since 1951. It has since brought to Rome tens of thousands of people to the Eternal City for a temporary or a permanent stay.

Its ethnoscape is as diverse as it can get: it currently staffs over a thousand officials and employees from 194 different member countries.

The Technoscape also varies a lot, collecting expertise not only from different countries but from different professional backgrounds, from medical doctors to ecologists, to accountants, biologists, etc. Each one bringing its own set of cultural specificities/technologies (some also rudimental and traditional ways of cooking e.g. from New Zealand, using geothermic power).

The financescape, also an interesting point of view for analyzing the FAO case is best represented by the FAO budget: it collects money from the 194 member states, but also from companies and other private donors unconditionally, with the power to spend it in any project in any country, as long as it obeys the UN Charter and the FAO Treaty.

Coming to the Mediascape, FAO gives us many sources of representations through its campaigns. The Rome Headquarters act as a crossroads of ideas, projects, ways of representation and it broadcasts them to the world.

In the end the Ideoscape of the FAO is deeply influenced by the UN values of Human Rights, and by the more recent Sustainable Development Goals. The Rome Headquarters are a place where new interpretations of this concepts are developed, presented, and applied to the Body's work. New Ideas from all over the world meet other Ideas, and find a fertile ground for new applications.


Giorgia Morucci ha detto...

in this article, Appadurai explains that the best way to understand the complex and rapidly-changing world in which we are living, is through 5 dimensions: ethnoscape, technoscape, finanscape, mediascape and ideoscape.
he defines:
> ETHNOSCAPE as the movement of individuals or groups of individuals who tend to increasingly affect politics;
> TECHNOSCAPE as the rapid spread and deplyoment of technologies at an unprecedented speed in previously "technologically-arid" zones;
> FINANSCAPE as the huge flows of global capital all around the globe and the difficulty in tracking these flows more than ever;
> MEDIASCAPE as the dissemination of information, now available worldwide to both public and private actors;
> IDEOSCAPE as the concatenation of ideas, images and terms, linked to political ideologies of states, as a way to asserting their power in the global arena.

Moreover, what Appadurai identifies as one of the main features of modern world is DETERRITORIALIZATION, which has lately lead the way to fundamentalist movements.

the phenomena that I want to analyze today is precisely fundamentalism, as it represents one of the hottest topics to be discussed nowadays.
Indeed, fundamentalism, and especially Islamic fundamentalism such as ISIS, can be analyzed through Appadurai's 5 dimensions.

TECHNOSCAPE and MEDIASCAPE have to be considered together when it comes to ISIS: as a matter of fact, thanks to TECHNOSCAPE - the availability of phones, televisions, radios, computers almost in all of the world - ISIS has been able to control MEDIASCAPES. New technologies have not only made it possible to produce propaganda with astonishing ease, but they have also made it far easier to disseminate films and images. Indeed, for what concerns social media, ISIS has proved fluent in YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, Tumblr, and other. Through these media, "Dabiq", the online magazine used by ISIS for recruitment purposes, spread from 2014 to 2016. From 2016, the magazine quit to exist and was replaced by a new one, "Rumiyah", which is curently released in several languages including also English, French, German and Russian. in this way, ISIS has managed to shape its own IDEOSCAPE. Moreover, amateur videos and images are also being uploaded daily by its footsoldiers, which are then globally disseminated, both by ordinary users and mainstream news organisations hungry for images of a conflict their own cameras cannot access.
As a matter of fact, when dealing with ISIS, we have to take into account two parallel worlds, each one with its own 5 scapes: ISIS on one side and the West on the other. MEDIASCAPES can be found also in the West, where news are transmitted on a daily basis and a completely different IDEOSCAPE is being disseminated. the IDEOSCAPE trasmitted by the West is mainly beased on fear: MEDIASCAPE is used in this sense with the purpose of informing citizens about the bad things that are happening around the world and to instill in them the fear of the "stranger". indeed, this kind of IDEOSCAPE has now become the normality in the West, where all muslim peoples are considered as terrorists.
For what concerns ETHNOSCAPES, we have to divide the world in two once again: on one side, we see the people that are the direct victims of fundamentalism, who are moving abroad to seek for stability and peace; while on the other we find the Western citizens, who move away from places that are considered as hot-spots and extremely dangerous (for example Paris or London), mainly based on our IDEOSCAPE promoted by our MEDIASCAPES.
FINANSCAPES also play a role in this situation and they go along with TECHNOSCAPES. indeed, money can now be transferred easily thanks to the technological advancements and fundamentalists know it very well. moreover, TECHNOSCAPES have made it possible for attacks to be carried out easily and are considerably cheaper - cyber-attacks are the example!

Claudia Schiavelli ha detto...

What Appadurai defines as the "five -scapes" transmits movement as their core message. Everything flows in modern reality, everything influences and is influenced and everything moves in its own way without cause-effect relationships. In such a world, the tiniest role played by the individual can contemporarily experience the real world and the "imagined world" (Anderson), which are made up by the imaginary of those who ceased to belong to a "stable community".

A phenomenon that touches all the -scapes is adoption. Yes, not all the adopted kids come from far away and poorer countries but let's take one who does. A girl from India got adopted by an Italian family when she was very young. She surely remembers very little about her native country but she knows somehow there is something that links her more to that part of the world than to Italy. Her Ethnoscape is going to be influenced by her origins but the choice of living in an imaginated world is either of her parents or hers when she grows up.
If the girl left behind a sibling that could not be adopted by the same family, the technology could be a great way to find it and to keep in touch.
If she ever did find that sister or brother that still is in India and lives in poor conditions, what she would be urged to do is help her or him financially, creating a finanscape between the two countries.
For someone living in the status of not knowing the place, you were originally from must certainly evoke some curiosity about it. That's when mediascapes result to be essential, in a way, to associate a name with an image by simply googling it. Also, the way she perceives news or information on the country she has never really experienced, are going to be in some way distorted. That will influence the ideoscape she has about the ideologies and the social engine moving the country.
It is certainly hard to discern all these elements and the way they intertwine or block the others way, the only connection they surely share is the human capital living and experiencing them altogether.

Lavinia D'achille ha detto...

Appadurai in his article “disjuncture and difference in global economy” underlines the conflict between cultural homogenization and cultural heterogenization. Furthermore the author formulates a model for the disjunctures between different types of global flows by making a simple framework which is meant to study the complex relationship of these global flows in five important dimensions : ethnoscape, technoscape, financescape,mediascape and ideoscape. Each of them represent a dimension of global flows,as I said before, which are disjunctive ,interdependent and interrelated.
The term “scapes” is used by Appadurai in order to describe the constantly changing shapes of global flows. Going into more details ,regarding the five dimensions, we can say that mediascape and ideoscape both refer to the circulation of ideas,symbols and images in different contexts,because ,while mediascape is used in order to describe the more imaginative layers of reality such as media worldwide,ideoscape is more linked to the concrete spheres of ideas such as political ideologies of States. As regards as ethnoscape,it is considered to be the dimension of the flow of people across the world, therefore, surely, tends to affect the other dimensions of technoscape and financescape. Whereas these last two dimensions have to do with movement of money and movement of technology.
The phenomenon that I would like to analyze through an Appaduranian perspective is: Climate change.
Even if climate change is a phenomenon not perceived, as a real problem,by everyone in a daily life dimension, it has became a social aspect that continuously affects and transforms the reality in which we all live in.
Carrying out an ethnoscape dimension,it’s relevant underlining how the tourism industry is changing overtime becoming more and more weather sensitive, just think of, for instance, to heavy snow storms during winter seasons and flood during summers. Of course etnoscape dimension,in the framework of climate change,has not just to do with tourism but also with migration and lifestyles.
From a mediascape and ideoscape dimensions ,this phenomenon is very well connected to ethnoscape,mainly because the perception that masses have of climate change is strongly related to what mass media and governments prefer to spread.
Financescape and technoscape are,in my opinion,the most relevant dimensions talking about climate change. Financescape,that is the movement of money,can be analyzed from two points of view; because, if from one side fundings are useful for campaigns in order to promote and widespread the problem,from the other side they are one of the main causes for not promoting it due to the earnings beyond everything that is not good for the planet.
The last dimension is technoscape,which is a huge tool for Climate issues, in fact through technology experts can study and try to reduce the problem,adopting for instance alternative energies or alternative way of living (ex. electric cars or solar panels).

Sonia Matera ha detto...

[A little parenthesis: for the sake of simplicity, in this comment I will talk in general about South East Asians. I am perfectly aware that what I will say does not apply to all the South East Asian populations and that my observations can be limited to the people I personally met while I was there or on a limited share.]

This summer I spent one month working in Thailand. I was alone and my only friends were local people. In a sense, I was a sort of ethnographer, a very cheap one but still. I tried as much as I could to apply the Interpretative method while I was there (even though I did not know it until the Anthropology of Globalisation classes). Well, I can say that I was impressed by the shared social phenomenon of young south east asians wanting to westernalize. I think it can be interesting to analyse it through the five -scapes developed by Arjun Appadurai.

First of all, Ethnoscapes: south east asians want to move out of their countries. They are incredibly fascinated by western and, especially, European cultures. The main reason why they do not move is economical. They change their name and they adapt their habitudes to western ones within their country of origin.
Mediascapes: Social media play an huge role. Through Facebook and Instagram, people, especially the young, choose and strictly follow their role models. They want to look like them, dress in the same way and have the same skin colour. What I will never forget is what happened on a very sunny day in Bangkok. I was looking for a face cosmetic but I could not find anything. The reason why is very simple but, at the same time, very complex: all cosmetics and creams were whitening.
Technoscapes: through technological advancements, these populations, especially the ones living in the most advanced cities, are increasingly exposed to the western types of economic models. They have European clothing shops, music playlists and American cars. They might find themselves working for western enterprises or families. Moreover, with such a technological innovation, some of them had also the chance to visit Europe or the United States.
Financescapes: well, this is connected with ethnoscape. The ones who succeed in moving out of their countries, they will open new businesses there and maybe they will send some remittances to their country of origin. Another option is the market developed around the import of western products and famous brands or the movement of capital due to international exchanges, very frequent practice among the most rich south east asian families.
Ideoscapes: from what I have seen, young thailandese are extremely fascinated by western values such as freedom, welfare rights or democracy. They are incredibly attracted by the American dream and they wish they could be freed by some very strict local traditions and rules.

I want to conclude by reporting what Appadurai says in his most famous article, Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy: “An important fact of the world we live in today is that many persons on the globe live in such imagined worlds (and not just in imagined communities) and thus are able to contest and sometimes even subvert the imagined worlds of the official mind and of the entrepreneurial mentality that surround them”.

Sonia Matera ha detto...
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Md Ashique Ali ha detto...

After reading the famous article “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy” by Arjun Appadurai, the Hindi Cinema came into the mind, there I may find cultural “scape”.

Indian Hindi Cinema, so called Bollywood (but neither me or many don’t use this word, the reason it doesn’t show the exact meaning, even many people misunderstood Bollywood represent Indian Cinema but it’s Indian Hindi language film industries) mainly started in 1913, Raja Harishchand was the first silent movie and Alam Ara came in 1931 the first sound movie.

Ethnos capes: Hindi Cinema located in Mumbai (Maharashtra an Indian region), It is one of the biggest film production industries in the world, a vast number of the people come to work with from different part of the universe. They come as actors, dancers, creative technicians, and for multi purposes. Off course, they live there and share the cultures and talent. Apart from this, India is known for its multicultural societies, the people come in Mumbai from various parts, regions and cultural background of the country, they work and share cultures within country, in this way Hindi Cinema in Mumbai is known for multiculturalism as nationally and globally.

Technoscope: The Film industries (Hindi and others) always get benefits each other’s tech-nically and with techniques, the cameras, new story technique, new experiments, different direc-tions, and other instruments get them closer.

Financescape: The outdoor shootings, films marketing, releasing, and promotion are main aspects of the financescope. The film festivals, awards (Oscars and Bafta etc.) are others places to share fi-nance and cultures at global platform.

Mediascope. The internet is the main factor behind to spread Hindi Cinema in many parts of the world, off course releasing process is also there. You tube, and Facebook are other huge media, people easily access the Hindi movies and get feel in imagination of India, its societies and dimen-sions, and in opposite Indians do the same after watching other movies, but the empirical face of the cultures and the one the movie represent could be a healthy discussion.

Ideoscapes: The freelance Hindi films directors (Meera Nair, Deepa Mehta and others) make the movies either Indian culture or with shared cultures, sometimes extremely strange culture (Queen of Katwe by Meera Nair), and other side Slumdog Millionaire (By Tony Boyel) and Tiger, made by Hollywood directors, in this way it’s a place to share and feel the other cultures.

Iza D ha detto...

In his most famous article "disjuncture and difference in global cultural economy”, the anthropologist A. Appadurai gives an analysis of social phenomena highlighting the complex system of our global society seeing these phenomena from five Lindsey’s that do not always and necessarily connect the ones with the others but that’s intertwine and contribute to the complexity of social phenomena itself. These five lenses are: ethnoscapes, technoscapes, financescapes, mediascapes and ideoscapes.
I spent quite a bit of time to find an example that can fit into this analysis trying not to repeat the examples made by the others. One basic element that can be analyzed is health with its global implications.
Health is something that has to do with all of us living beings.
Ethnoscapes: with these lenses, health can be analyzed in more than one way. We can consider that infectious diseases are more spread in some parts of the world than in others, usually they are diffused where accessing sanitary resources is more difficult).
We can also consider That Many People Go abroad in Order tu study to become physicians.
Technoscapes: Scientific and technological progress have been growing at a very fast pace, in order to find cures for many types of illnesses.
Financescapes: this perspective makes me think of the huge amount of funds research and sanitary services need in o to be performed but also the pressure that someone parents still put on young students to study medicine to get jobs capable of granting more than others, an easier access to financial resources and a stadier social position.
Mediascapes: with a widespread access to information, also sanitary and scientific research is more accessible.
Ideoscapes: it is enough to think about the social discourse is made on health and prevention nowadays and the way some political parties instrumentalize some views to gain consensus in some more fragile and ignorant people (see what happened with vaccines recently in Italy).

Mohammad Almulla ha detto...

In the beginning of the text, the author suggests that the transmission of culture can happen in five dimensions or as the author says scapes (ethnoscapes, technoscape, financescape, mediascape, and ideoscapes), and the author also stated that there is a huge difference if people move between borders and can actually fit into society or not.

Travelling is a great social phenomenon to talk about as from experience I have learned most about myself and other cultures by traveling going to three continents has shown me many cultures. To link traveling to the scapes is simple as by traveling and being a tourist you are moving through borders from one place to the other, Technoscapes are visible all the time when you are a tourist everyone is walking around having their cameras out, some countries are more advanced on the technology front but still everyone is using some sort of gadget in their travels.
Another scape is financescape which is evident because when we travel we always exchange currency so that we can manage to do what we want to do in the aimed country.Mediascapes are visible as now we have many applications that make it easier to know where to go and what to do in the country we are aiming to go to, one big example is TripAdvisor where you can see what people think about certain landscapes and how they review them. The final scape is the ideoscape if you are a tourist and you are exploring a new country you start to notice how people think in that country and if you talk with them you get to learn a lot about their ideology.

Iza D ha detto...

During anthropology lectures we had the chance to read A. Appadurai's most famous article called "disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy". In this article, the author gives an analysis of our society and its complex phenomena. According to the anthropologist it's possible to understand the complexity of society through five lenses (that in the article are called scapes) that are not always and necessarily dependent the ones on the others, but all together contribute in shaping society and its complexity. These are: ethnoscapes, technoscapes, financescapes, mediascapes and ideoscapes. I spent quite a bit of time to find an example that can fit this analysis, even though it is something that can be applied to many elements and social constructs. One basic element we all have to deal with and that can be analysed through these five scapes is health.
ETHNOSCAPES: considering health through these lenses, there is more than one thing that can be seen. For example the fact that some diseases (for example infectious ones) are more diffused in some Countries than in others, mainly where the access to sanitary resources is scant.
Another element related to this scape is that many people go abroad to study medicine.
TECHNOSCAPE: the technological advancement and the scientific progress has been always involving to find cures for many types of illnesses.
FINANCESCAPES: the researches, medical equipments and healthcare services need a huge ammount of financial resources to be performed and carried out.
MEDIASCAPE: with the widespreading of internet, all types of information have started to become way more and more accessible, including scientific and medical research. Of course, I am not saying that common people are entitled to make diagnosis by themselves, certainly we do need fisicians, but medical informations are easily accessibre.
IDEOSCAPES: it's enough to look at the public discourse Italy has been passing through recently about health and prevention with the example of vaccines, widely instrumentalized by political parties (to create false information and suspicious attitude on one side and consensus on the other).

Rebecca Biraschi ha detto...

In order to analyse nowadays global flows, Appadurai suggested a model based on five dimensions. He labelled these five dimensions “-scapes,” meaning that they are fluid and constantly shifting, just as cultures are. They are ethnoscape, mediascape, technoscape, financescape and ideoscape.
Using these five dimensions, I would like to make an analysis of a social phenomenon that has been having a relevant impact on our society since the 70s: the drug traffic.
In particular, I will focus on the period in which the traffic of a particular drug, cocaine, became a social phenomenon, and on the most relevant personality in Colombia that lead the traffic drug in that period: Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria.
It was the 70s, when in Columbia, the traffic of cocaine knew an incredible development. In these years many criminals and businesspersons, got interested in narcotraffic. It was in this context that took place the formation of the first cartel, the Medellìn Cartel. At the top of it, there was Pablo Escobar, and next to him José Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha, the Ochoa brothers, and an inestimable number of subordinates.
In those years, technologies knew a huge development, and the creation of such technoscape had been essential for the success of the projects of the cartel. The means of communication became more and more, and made easier the transport as well as the creation of nets for the traffic of cocaine. At the same time, technology made faster and more efficient the production of cocaine.
In addition, the mediascape contributed to let cocaine entering in people’s life and in particular, at that time, it introduced the figure of Pablo Escobar to Colombians, at first, and then to people elsewhere in the world. Moreover, Medias, at the beginning of the activity of Pablo Escobar, labelled him as “Robbin Hood”, because he used to give money to the poor in exchange of loyalty, and because of the money he allocated in building schools and hospitals. This helped the Medellin Cartel to be known, and in addition, many people fascinated by the figure of Escobar wanted to become part of the cartel.
Shortly, the ethnoscape of the Medellìn Cartel reached its greatest expansion: it controlled the largest amount of drug that entered the US, Mexico, Porto Rico, Venezuela, Dominican Republic, and Spain, and many other nations. The expansion of the Medellin Cartel, lead to a financescape, which counted an unbelievable amount of money. In 1982, the exports of cocaine from Columbia was higher than that of coffee and it turned to represent the 30% of the total exports of the country. Pablo Escobar governed the 80% of the cocaine in the world.
The ideology that was behind the international empire of cocaine that Pablo Escobar and the Medellìn Cartel created was that of creating a Narcos State that would have taken the place of the Colombian state. However, later on, especially with the death of Escobar, this idea changed and the narcotraffic was brought ahead because of the alluring amount of money that it involved.

Uroš Ilić ha detto...

I’m going to attempt to analyze the resurgence of populism in the western world. I’ll start with the ethnoscape parameter as the rise of populism can be directly linked with the negative backlash of increased migration and interconnectivity in domestic populations across the West. The resistance (one could say fear of) to change and diversity which has to an extent always been present (we just noticed it less) allowed political demagogues to gain power. There are always two sides to a coin. While the advances in technoscape and the increase in mobility through borders served as a tool for greater understanding among cultures, they have also provided nationalistic and right-wing movements across the west with a greater staging platform and level of interaction, making them more powerful. The particular issue which made Europeans rush into the arms of populistic leaders would be the increased flow of migration from the Islamic world (Syria, North Africa etc) and the threat of “radical Islamic terror” (whatever that is, terrorism is terrorism no matter the religion). This is where we come to the mediascape aspect. A vastly larger amount of people dies in the West due to overdose and drunk driving then terrorism. Yet national media outlets (or ones close to populistic governments) focus much more on the latter. I shall take the example of FOX news in the US which has for years now served as a populistic tool for spreading misinformation and propaganda on which populism and currently the trump administration thrives. Again, two sides of the coin. The more liberal and understanding and coverage about populism and the issues which provoked its rise can be found on the internet amongst mainly the newer generations. This comes as no surprise as cultural diversity does not scare people who grew up under it. This might however be biased as opinions of my friends and my social media feed does not necessarily reflect those of other people but a generational rift between acceptance and criticism of populism certainly exist. I am unsure on how should I approach the finance scape. I guess populism can be considered as a poor attempt to preserve Western economic dominance but I’m really talking out of my depth here. For political parties and their leaders, populism can be seen as a tool of exploitation of the scared and misinformed masses (which the mediascape has done a wonderful job of creating) for wealth and power. This is almost a paradox as nobody can refute that increased global cooperation and migration has caused a global economic boom increasing both wages and living standards. We have only begun unlocking the potentials of multiculturalism. Imagine a world where instead of economic competition we had full productional cooperation.
I will conclude my answer with ideoscapes as we are as said before talking about two contrasting views and a generational rift. On one side, we have populism (surprise, surprise) which promotes some kind of “protection” from outside forces and promotes its views through propaganda. On the other we have a newer generation supporting the idea of “global citizenship” as borders and nationalities are slowly losing their defining power. It is simply a fact that I have more things in common with some kid in Singapore then I do with a 60-year-old Serbian national. I see no fault in the west trying to preserve its global importance but populism is not the way to go about it. Instead of locking up and away from the world, leading it into a new era of cooperation and enlightment would certainly improve global relations and diminish conflict.

Uroš Ilić ha detto...

I’m going to attempt to analyze the resurgence of populism in the western world. I’ll start with the ethnoscape parameter as the rise of populism can be directly linked with the negative backlash of increased migration and interconnectivity in domestic populations across the West. The resistance (one could say fear of) to change and diversity which has to an extent always been present (we just noticed it less) allowed political demagogues to gain power. There are always two sides to a coin. While the advances in technoscape and the increase in mobility through borders served as a tool for greater understanding among cultures, they have also provided nationalistic and right-wing movements across the west with a greater staging platform and level of interaction, making them more powerful. The particular issue which made Europeans rush into the arms of populistic leaders would be the increased flow of migration from the Islamic world (Syria, North Africa etc) and the threat of “radical Islamic terror” (whatever that is, terrorism is terrorism no matter the religion). This is where we come to the mediascape aspect. A vastly larger amount of people dies in the West due to overdose and drunk driving then terrorism. Yet national media outlets (or ones close to populistic governments) focus much more on the latter. I shall take the example of FOX news in the US which has for years now served as a populistic tool for spreading misinformation and propaganda on which populism and currently the trump administration thrives. Again, two sides of the coin. The more liberal and understanding and coverage about populism and the issues which provoked its rise can be found on the internet amongst mainly the newer generations. This comes as no surprise as cultural diversity does not scare people who grew up under it. This might however be biased as opinions of my friends and my social media feed does not necessarily reflect those of other people but a generational rift between acceptance and criticism of populism certainly exist. I am unsure on how should I approach the finance scape. I guess populism can be considered as a poor attempt to preserve Western economic dominance but I’m really talking out of my depth here. For political parties and their leaders, populism can be seen as a tool of exploitation of the scared and misinformed masses (which the mediascape has done a wonderful job of creating) for wealth and power. This is almost a paradox as nobody can refute that increased global cooperation and migration has caused a global economic boom increasing both wages and living standards. We have only begun unlocking the potentials of multiculturalism. Imagine a world where instead of economic competition we had full productional cooperation.
I will conclude my answer with ideoscapes as we are as said before talking about two contrasting views and a generational rift. On one side, we have populism (surprise, surprise) which promotes some kind of “protection” from outside forces and promotes its views through propaganda. On the other we have a newer generation supporting the idea of “global citizenship” as borders and nationalities are slowly losing their defining power. It is simply a fact that I have more things in common with some kid in Singapore then I do with a 60-year-old Serbian national. I see no fault in the west trying to preserve its global importance but populism is not the way to go about it. Instead of locking up and away from the world, leading it into a new era of cooperation and enlightment would certainly improve global relations and diminish conflict.

Iva Budakova ha detto...

The new global cultural economy needs to be understood as a really complex phenomenon. The current economy has to do with certain fundamental disjuncture between politics, culture and economy. In order to understand this complexity we have the help of Arjun Appadurai in his article, which shows us the importance of the five dimensions. I would explained them by giving at the same time an example which is highly known – living abroad, and a personal view which is the experience that I have in this field.
Starting from “Ethoscape”, which is the landscape of persons who constitute shifting the world in which we all live in. Firstly, this process of living and more specifically studying or working abroad had become more popular in the past years. I can say that having your ethic group and bringing it into entire different country is a really good representation of moving your culture. Even if you go just for a few months, it is still a part of the Ethoscape movement. Coming from a different culture I had to experience this process of changing when I first came to study in Rome. I will say that is has a huge impact on the future and has a lot to do in terms of imagination. As it is written in the article “imagined worlds” explains the imagination of persons and groups spread around the globe. But these moving groups cannot afford to let their imaginations rest too long, even if they wish too.
Coming back to the second dimension “Techoscape”, it is really easy to say that living alone in Rome is simple because thought technology I can stay connected to my family and my friends back home. I think a lot of people which are working or studying aboard appreciate this global configuration in how technology, both high and low, moves at high speeds.
Moving on to the third dimension which is “Finoscape”, the article says that it has a complex connection between the previous two and that relation is unpredictable. For this point, the financial stability which I receive from my parents is a good example. Scholarships, that many universities gives in order helps students to feel more comfortable and understandable is also a major aspect.
“Mediascape” was probably the most useful dimension to me personally. The news and the media helped me stay in touch with everything that was going on in my home country without making me leave and stop sharing my culture to Italy. It is a huge plus which at the same time gives you an overview prospective and lets you see the world with only a click on your laptop or phone.
The last dimension is “Ideoscape” – are also concatenations of image, including freedom, rights and welfare. Before coming to Rome I have never lived in another country so my knowledge and experience in this field were really low. Nowadays I can say that Rome really changed my prospective. I have learned so much from so many people and I think living abroad can really make you more open- minded and giving and taking different culture is the key of improving and helping in your way of growing as a human being.

Ilaria Miligi ha detto...

I want to start my answer highlighting the fact that our course is an interdisciplinary course based on the multi facial reading of events and phenomena. Being open minded requires necessarily the capability of having a wider understanding of reality and a wider look towards the faces of it.
Using the anthropologic vocabulary created by Arjun Appadurai with the purpose of analyzing our multi-sited anthropology, that giving up on the identification with ‘the place’ as a delimited space would define itself as the study of connections and scapes, in a hierarchy based on the unequal distribution of cultural capital, there are this five scapes ethno scape, techno scape, finance scape, media scape, ideo scape.
The phenomenon I would like to analyze today is a very sad one, and sadly can be analyzed with the five aspects, it is sexual tourism.
Sexual tourism comprehends travels with the main purpose of seeking sexual relationships: tourists coming from rich and developed countries are involved in this ‘sexual travels’ towards poor destination, such as developing countries. The consequences that this phenomenon brings about are sad and painful. Why is this a so common phenomenon and why is it so necessary to travel to obtain sexual relationships? Which is the idea that lays upon this ‘movement of people’?
In developing countries the relationship between age and sexuality is different and complex, there could be a reduction of the consensus age and consequently an increment in the under-age prostitution and the facility of the access to it. The idea is that looking for sexual relationships is no more something that persons can find in their country, on the contrary they are not satisfied with it, so they plan to move somewhere else to find what satisfies them, pedophilia, in most cases.
Moreover the fast technologic services, the low cost companies, the fact that video and photo can be easily shared on the web only increments pedo pornography. Technology indirectly manages to involve more and more people (men, women, single, married), because on the web they can share their opinion and experiences and that’s why sexual tourism is now present at a global level. The countries involved as destinations are Bangladesh, Brasile, Colombia, Nepal, Thailandia, Ukraina, Kenya, Europe and Africa, while the travelers mostly come from Italy, Germany, Sweden and France.
The movement of people coming from different countries and looking for sexual relationships is an important one, which involves mostly people between 20 and 40 years. The ethnoscape here is strictly linked with the technological scape, and even with the finance scape, since tourists prefer developing countries because of they can offer sexual services, even under aged persons and statutory rape at a lower price. It is estimated that 100 million dollars are included in the earns made by the sexual tourism and a study by the Secretary General of United Nations explains that over 220 million under aged persons have been raped or similarly affected, a significant part of them is now included into the prostitution cycle.
The horrible phenomenon is condemned through the media and we can consider them as a tool with high responsibility. The task of the media is the one to condemn firmly this kind of behavior, violence and horrible practice.

Badriyya Soltanli ha detto...

Thinking of social phenomenon, I come up with a more political one which has occurred to be more social. Trump era sounds like a good example for me to describe “Appadurai’s scapes” given.
Even if it was a shock to the whole world how the presidential elections resulted last year, but nobody would expect the hostility that would possibly come from him in broad terms.
As soon as he got elected, we had breaking news non-stop about the American migration to Canada. Not to stay in the US anymore, the citizens are trying to cross the border to escape from Trumps’ America. Since the first day of his presidency, we experience his bizarre decisions about the migration, among other globe changing issues. One of the journalists has published in the newspaper: “Mr. Trump frequently spoke out against illegal immigration during his campaign, accusing immigrants of stealing jobs from American workers and bringing crime into the country. As President, he has pushed for the construction of a wall on the US-Mexico border, and implemented a travel ban on six Muslim-majority countries.” As we know, some country citizens cannot go to the US, and are unable to visit their families, friends. It has profoundly affected the ethnoscape of the world that has been reshaped long ago.
This all apparently results on other scapes mentioned by Appadurai which are technoscape, mediascape, ideoscape, finanscape.
Going on with mediascape, every new-born baby is almost aware of Trump’s existence in the world. The media is filled up with daily news of him. Our everyday life talks are pretty much about his decision, new craziness. He keeps us wondered every single day what is going to decide for the next day.
While all these are happening, the immigration policies, relocation of the people and more lead the situation to have more financial and technological changes.
I believe that his policies make very crucial impacts on the global level. However, the one that is more visible is “ideoscape”. The ideologies of states and counter-ideologies of movements are fluctuating so dramatically because of extreme changes on the broad scope. It is summarized by the collapse of the collaborations with all world leading countries with an ideologically different and less educated man. Unfortunately, the most crucial globe changing dynamics are being ignored by Trump.

JINGYUAN LI ha detto...

Appadurai proposes a model In his article "Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy", for exploring the disjunctures that come from the complexity of the current world, and he divided five dimensions: ethnoscapes, technoscapes, mediascapes, finanscapes, ideoscapes.
A social phenomenon that I would like to mention is studying abroad, which is the most related with myself. And i also believe that with the globalization, more and more Chinese students choose to study abroad, usually they would like to go to English speaking countries. What's more, a lot of western students are coming to China to study what they are interested in by living in China for knowledge refreshment.
For myself, what influenced me the most is the “ideoscape” during this process. According to Appadurai, this process is composed of elements of the enlightment world-view, which includes “freedom”, “welfare”. Born and bred in China as young generation after 95s, what influenced me the most is Confucian culture and values, based on chasing harmony between people and being curious to accept knowledge. Nowadays, since the “China opening market policy” in year 1980s, China has changed and influenced by western market. As young generation, more and more families have the financial support and willings to send their child to western countries. I know many people would say that I probably was very shocked when I came to italy because the ideology is totally different, however I’d like to say personally I didn’t get shocked that much, cause the difference seemed to me an already-known exist and I already knew more or less the differences when I was in China by education and I quite accept it by “mediascape”( films, songs, tv series). Not only news, but more is some personal studying by sharing on the net. Almost every city in Italy has Chinese restaurants made me feel home sometimes, and I know those owners themselves are not like students, they participated more in “finanscapes”. Earning money here and send them into China, and maybe their children will use that money to go travelling to the other countries. “Technoscape” what I know is the Chinese famous cellphone company ” HUAWEI”, which shocked me EXACTLY the most when I came to Italy cause all I didn’t expect it has so big market also in Europe, before what I know was HUAWEI has some market proportion in foreign countries but now I know the company itself is a success of technoscape spreading. It’s common to see the advertisement everywhere and HUAWEI cellphones.
In the end, globalization is happening and influential to everyone, we are being more and more closer meanwhile we still have culture space of our own which we may narrow it a bit to let the other culture in, or expand it to melt the space of the other culture. We all have different ways of this global flow process.

Grace Mageka ha detto...

Each one of us; in our own ways we tend to shift the world in which we have had an opportunity to live in and thus this affects the politics of our countries. For example; I have had an opportunity to visit countries with advanced democracies where they have political stability which have led to stable economy. Myself coming from Africa where we are struggling with democracy and unstable politics that have led us to poor economy for over a half century now since the colonialists left. Every time I see how political leaders engage in bad politics that leads to bad political leadership and poor policies implementation; I try to measure my country if it is a good society with the minimum requirement of a good society; such as democratic state, safe environment. So, in this way having had an opportunity to experience and thus being shaped on how to influence how my fellow friends and family members respond me to me and their surrounding which has also influenced my grandmother and grandfather thus developing and evolving to different opinions in regards to the state of my country this has come as a result of me focusing on the ways that the various events of the past have influenced or changed my behavior in the present. Using the five the five –scapes of Arjun Appadurai I can say the political integration and social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and others.

Giorgio Severi ha detto...

A social phenomenon I think could be interesting to be analized through Appadurai’s five scapes is the cheer for a football team.
Ethnoscapes for this social phenomenon would be the temporal movement of people among different countries. Indeed the supporters during international competitions follow the team in its away matches, with the difficulties involved. Indeed for the people coming in the away match could be an opportunity to visit a new country and to enjoy some days of holliday beside the single match of the team, but the arrival of thousands of supporter for the hosting country can be a security issue.
For what concern the financescape there are involved a lot of money in the cheer. The circulation of money is not only based on the cost of the match tickets, neither only on the sales inside the stadium. Indeed thinking about an away game, there will be costs concerning a flight and an hotel and all the necessary for the staying in that country.
The spread of new technologies accessible to most of the people has made much easier and faster to buy a ticket or a flight. Indeed is possible from your own phone to book a seat fro the match you want, or moreover if a supporter can not watch directly the game, nowadays all the televisions and streaming websites gives the possibility not to loose a second of it. And this aspects is strictly connected to the mediascape, indeed thanks to the technologies the supporter can always has first hand news every second on his team. There are tv, journals and radios only focused on football teams.
Ideoscapes embrace all the reasons for which a supporter cheers a specific team and travels around different countries to follow it: most of the times because it is the team of your city or of your father.

Arianna Patrizi ha detto...

Among the countless phenomena that characterize the scene of the modern world, i would like to talk about the birth and development of the online market, in particular of the great expansion of Amazon.
At first sight, this phenomena could seem to be strictly related to the economic field but, according to the Appadurai’s vision of the world, a world based on continuous interaction between different spheres, it turns to involve and have relevant effects on the political, social, ideological sectors, more than just on the economic and financial ones.
The division in the five scapes presented by Appadurai could be very useful in analyzing this phenomena.
Before starting, we need to have clear that Amazon is an electronic commerce and cloud computing company and that, this tech giant is the largest Internet retailer in the world.
Focus on the sector that Appadurai identifies as the FINANCESCAPE, basically concerned with the movement of money and global capital and its unprecedented complexity, the first thing we will find out are evidences about the predominant role of this new Internet retail in the circulation of money.
The data tell us that Amazon alone, even though it has almost no presence in the physical retail space, generated the 30% of US retail sales growth last year, selling online 6 times more than the next eight largest retailers combined.
Moreover, Amazon is not just playing an important role within the “financescape”, but it is also reshaping the original principles and ideas of it:
With the birth of Amazon, the basic idea of maximising profits has been replaced by the priority of fast growth and great visibility, accepting also lack of profitability, thus, the characteristics that companies and investors look for are completely changed.
The fast growth of Amazon goes at the same speed of technologies’ development, since it is entirely based on it. All the services offered by Amazon, their efficiency and velocity, would have never be possible without a so developed TECHNOSCAPE as the one of these days.
In fact, it’s only thanks to the flow of technologies that today Amazon operates in 16 countries all over the world, while at the beginning it was just an american service (...) (continues in the next comment!

Arianna Patrizi ha detto...

( SECOND PART)
On the contrary, if from one side we have an ongoing growth in the economic and technological field, on the other side all this slows down the movement of people, basically, we find a stagnating ETHNOSCAPE.
People now have switched to the online shopping, where they can find every kind of product without going anywhere. To give an idea of how dramatic the situation is, in the last years, the footfall traffic to malls has been cut in a half.
Furthermore, the great success of Amazon, as everything in this world, has a “dark” side, which unfortunately is quite hidden.
For example, what about the terrible conditions in which the Amazon’s employees work?
Moreover, what about the serious issue about the fact that Internet retail is slowly destroying the real one? What about all those people who have lost their job, or will lose it, because the low prices of Amazon are too competitive? Is Amazon winning the market monopoly?
These are all very relevant points that should come up in a conversation about Amazon, but they rarely do, while people are just excited about the fact that they can buy their things with a click from their sofa.
In this situation, from my personal point of view, a primary role should be played by the media, which on the contrary are totally ignoring and underestimating these problems.
So, in my opinion, in a world where the dissemination of information is easy, fast and available more than ever, the MEDIASCAPE presented by Appadurai seems to be inattentive and not too efficient.
To conclude, in all this huge environment, we should not forget the important function of the government in regulating it.
The State, according to its political ideology, was the only entity that could put some checks and limits to a so unstoppable phenomena. For instance, at the beginning the company did not collect any sale taxes, then, through the years, an “Amazon state sales tax collection policy” has been created.
In addition, a lot of laws have been written down for the protection of the consumer’s rights.
So, we see how that set of moral values and ideas, linked to political ideologies of states (what we can summarily call the ”IDEOSCAPE”) affirms his position in what was at the origins a pure economic phenomena.

ALICE97 ha detto...

The phenomenon I would like to analyze with the approach of Appadurai’s-scapes is the one of the massive migration that occurred in Spain after the civil war that took place in 1936 and ended in 1939 with the victory of the “bando nacional” and Franco, who late on established a dictatorship that lasted until 1975, year of his death. With the defeat of the “republicanos”, all those who managed tried to escape to France or other countries like South America (ethnoscape). There has been an attempt from part of the government that had been elected with legit elections during the “Segunda República”, of continuing existing, even though in exile. Almost all the most prestigious intellectuals of the countiers, most of which were supporting the liberals and against Franco, escaped to South America and continued there their intellectual works (ideoscape).
Many of those who managed to get a new life abroad still had families in Spain and could somehow send back money to them (financescape). With the regime new economic plans and the distruction due to the civil war, the economy of the country soon fall dramatically. Industries and technologies were incredibly underdeveloped and productions in all fields where scarce. This forced the regime to massively increase the importations (tecnhoscapes).
The regime soon expanded its control over any aspects of common life in the country. One of the most controlled was the media, meaning for that time mostly newspapers (mediascape). Censorship was an often used tool to oppress the opposition points of view and defend the stability of the regime and its impositions.

alice occhilupo ha detto...

I won’t bore you guys by listing the 5 scapes of Apaduarai, since you already know them. Therefore, I will only focus on a social phenomenon arose during the 90’s in Cuba, the setup of CASAS PARTICULARES. Last year I went to Cuba and I slept in different Casa Particulares, which are basically rooms rented to tourists, but the owner still lives in the same house. Kind of private houses arranged to a Bed and Breakfast style (kind of, not exactly). You will have a better understanding of the topic after the analysis I am going to conduct.

N.B. [I am assuming that readers know the peculiar political, economic structure of Cuba]

FINANCIAL SCAPE: Casas Particulares are born when Cuba was experiencing the so called “periodo Especial”, an economic crisis, caused by the Soviet Union collapse. The few Hotels available were and are governed by the state, so single individuals started to illegally rent their own rooms to tourist, in order to get some revenues. In the early 90’s the State made this process legal, in order to allow locals to gain an extra profit to survive to the economic crisis, hence everyone started to declare their entries to the state and pay taxes (not all, I heard stories of tourists that had to hide themselves when police would pass to make checks on the legality of the Casas Particulares). It all started like a spontaneous phenomenon, however, in current days people build houses with the purpose of opening a business, people invest on architectural design to have the best Casa Particulares in the area.

ETHNOSCAPE: Casas Particulares use to be also a way of exchanging cultures and kindness, when my mother went to Cuba, about 15 years ago, she went “a la playa” with a lady, owner of the casa particular in which she was staying, and her grandchild, just to mention an example of social relationship created thanks to this method. My mother 15 years ago, hang out with both locals and other tourists at nights, because for tourists accommodating in a Casa Particular meant to have a short journey in a local “host family”. Now, last year my mother went again to Cuba, with me this time, and she could really notice the different approach of local owners to tourist. There is no exchange of informal and true kindness and culture, only formal kindness, except for some casas Particulares run by old ladies or old gentlemen. We were simply treated ad clients, no as guests like it uses to be. Also, is to be a tradition that of course only the family itself managed the guests and everything, while now with the increasing tourism and evolution of this process, some families started to hire external people to record economic transaction, to clean rooms and to make breakfast and dinner. I felt nostalgia for something I have never experienced, but only learned through representations. I wanted to live that same “Cuba Particular” that my mother experienced.

To be continued...

alice occhilupo ha detto...

...TECHNOSCAPE AND MEDIASCAPE: I have to admit that technology is not a word I would use at all to describe this phenomenon, nor to talk about Cuba in general, since we all know that Cuba is a country which seems to be frozen in time, not for everything though. Frozen back to 50’s/60’s for what regards cars, and I would say frozen back to 90’s for what regards technology (however now the situation is changing, and technological progress is happening). Anyhow, thanks to the increasing Internet access and computers, casas particulares designed their own website and pages around early 2000’s, and grant more visibility also through social media like Facebook or social platforms for house renting (mainly used thanks to smart phones). Also thanks to advance technologies Cubans were able to build “better” (relative) houses. Before advertisement would happen through “Chinese whisper” method (passa parola). Due to the fact that wifi use to be really rare, an actually still is rare, a tourist would go to a casa particular and the owner of the latter (at the end of the journey) would call another casa particular, placed in the city in which the guest had to travel to, asking if there was place for her/his guest. Another method is the one of business cards, you would go to a specific casa particular because the previous casa particular gave you that address (business card). The most used method right now is to book the rooms from your home country before traveling to Cuba but this way you wouldn’t have space to vary since you should plan everything ahead.

IDEOSCAPE: this phenomenon was born as a way of making the best of what you had in order to “survive” (economically speaking), and according to me also as a proof that if the state controls everything, does not give opportunities to grow to single individuals in the way they think is the best. The idea was the one of using sleeping assets to create revenues and unconsciously creating social relationships with the rest of the world, giving tourists the possibility to experience the authentic Cuba, however this phenomenon is not authentic anymore since those structures are built specifically for tourists, currently it’s a “built” idea. Anyway, it was born as a spontaneous starting process of privatization, in fact the word “Particular” in Spanish means both private or peculiar. Before, only Cubans could open this kind of business, now foreign people can but with a constraint, about 55% of the property must belong to a Cuban citizen. If in the future, a foreign could build a casa particular without this constraint, I think the process would lose its nature. Already the casas particulares look more and more like simple bed and breakfasts.

Shahmar Hasanov ha detto...

After carefully reading the Appadurai’s “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy” (which was hard, but quite informative), I thought a lot which example to use. Eventually, I figured out and believe that the Internet is the perfect notion for associating with the “5 scapes” that have been explained in the Appadurai’s article.
Ethnoscape – this one is intuitive, as it is usual that people argue, discuss, debate over the social networks, by expressing their thoughts with the help of comments. And Internet is not regulated or somehow filtered, so that any person, regardless of his/her educational rank or field experience might interact with completely opposite person, from far away country or region.
Technoscape – certainly, while the content of Internet expands, the Internet develops as well. Nowadays, people can use numerous options on Internet, such as paying for the expenses, talking with the relatives and friends, even finding a potential spouse.
Finanscape – as we know, the financial transactions over the World Wide Web have been increasing too. The markets of today are migrating to the cyber-arena, and people buy the stocks, bonds and perform trading online. It means, the size of benefits and losses on Internet grow significantly.
Mediascape – it’s not a mystery that majority of individuals read the newspapers online daily. I’m sure there are still people who prefer the real scent of magazines and journals, but the number of news agencies online rises so quickly, and the redaction offices move to the online environment, by spending more funds on the digital format.
Ideoscape – and the last but not least, the main political, social ideas of today are being developed through the online tools. People have more access to the globe and higher chances to be heard, in comparison with the recent past. It means, even a small, at first seemed to be insignificant idea might be tremendously successful and gain a huge popularity.

Elsa Maria Festa ha detto...

In the late 18th and 19th century, more than ever before, the forces of cultural gravity changed dramatically. The interactions, the cultural traffic and the global flows of people intensified in an impressive and striking way; what comes out is a world with a disjunctive order that needs new (not simple) models of understanding. Complexity is the key assumption with which is necessary to start the analysis of a global phenomenon.
There are certain concepts, that in the last decades have become of common use, which represents contemporary mainstream trends and phenomena. Words like eco, bio and organic are used on a daily basis to characterize a lot of products in the market, from food to cosmetics.These words just mentioned are related to living organisms, environment, life and nature, things that are supposed to be not artificially manipulated. The idea ( that could be seen as a sort of IDEOSCAPE) behind those products is to lessen the impact of humans and of technologies on the rest of the world, to “benefit” the environment for example by using energy from renewable biological resources. It is a sort of green movement that has repercussions on every field of society, especially the political and social field. The climate change issue is one huge impressive example of how much politics is involved. To trace an ETHNOSCAPE of this phenomenon we could look for example at all the activists and volunteers that travel the world in order to fight for a specific issue related to the safeguard of the environment. The MEDIASCAPE is strictly connected to the ethnoscape: volunteers are socially active and their actions are visible and disseminated worldwide by the media, in this way the activists raise environmental issues to public knowledge and they inform people and sensibilize them. Considering that people around the world care more and more about the impact they and their activities have on the planet, there is a higher demand for green technologies. The TECHNOSCAPE could be the creation worldwide of ecological devices of every kind, new and brilliant inventions that have no territorial boundary.It exists an applied science, called Ecotechnology, that seeks to fulfill human needs while causing minimal ecological disruption and requires an understanding of the structures and processes of ecosystems and societies. All sustainable engineering that can reduce damage to ecosystems, adopt ecology as a fundamental basis, and ensure conservation of biodiversity and sustainable development may be considered as forms of ecotechnology. The FINANCESCAPE can be seen, for example, in the case of Greenpeace, a non-governmental environmental organization that states as its goal to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity”. Greenpeace receives its funding from individual supporters and foundations, the organization does not accept money from governments, intergovernmental organizations, political parties or corporations in order to avoid their influence. There is a global flow of money which supports the actions of Greenpeace.

Lucia von Borries ha detto...

A social phenomenon which would be interesting to analyze through Appadurai’s five-scapes is consumption. The way we consume on the daily has rapidly changed in the past years due to the advances of globalization. Germany has an interesting history in this aspect. During the time of the GDR West Germany was benefitting from the support of the Americans, while in East Germany the economy was shaped by the communist Soviet Union where supply was low and people had to wait years to be able to buy a car. Today consumption is linked to ideas of belonging and also seen as a visualization of advancement. I can remember my friend from Myanmar queuing for hours to attend the opening of the first KFC, an American fast food chain, in the country in 2015. The media-scape plays a vital role on the ideologies attached to consumption. Companies on average spend more money on advertising than production and advertising itself is shifting from the public to the private sphere, becoming more personalized to manipulate the consumers ideologies. The happy, life affirming visuals created by big companies like Coca Cola or tech-giants can have devastating effects, especially in parts of the world that, as Appadurai describes, are further away from the direct experiences of metropolitan life. The lines between realistic and fictional landscapes become increasingly blurred which causes audiences to create fantastic and ideological spheres which can be accessed by consuming certain products/media. Mexico has been battling an obesity crisis due to the consumption of Coca Cola, which is said to have healing powers in parts of the country.
Processes in the ethno- and technoscapes have made consumption cheaper and more convenient. Outsourcing has cut cost in production as labor and land is cheaper while workers’ rights and safety-procedures aren’t enforced as in more developed countries. Due to fast technology and transportation the production of one product can involve different steps and parts shipped across borders, which affects the distribution of revenue of the final product. Today we can buy products with a “fair-trade” label, ensuring that the workers in the production stages get fair wages, a concept which was unnecessary in a time where production was happening on a local scale and the workers creating the products were also its consumers. Technological advancements have made mass production and shipment so cheap that local, small-scale production may be more expensive than buying the product from half-way across the world. In wealthier social classes the place of production is important, ensuring quality, for which it is worth spending more money. Some products, like technology from Germany, may be deemed more trustworthy and durable than the equivalent product with the label ‘made in China’.
The concepts I touched on visualize that ideologies of politicians like Donald Trump, who want to return to forms of self-sufficiency and away from the interdependence of globalization are almost impossible. Our competitive markets rely on financial flows and the exchange of information and labor. Countries impose economy sanctions for violations of human-rights, which also highlights this aspect. International consumption today is vital for our standard of living and aid processes like migration. People are more willingly to move half-way across the world for studying, work or other necessity if they know that they are going to be able to eat the same dinner with the same ingredients as they did in their home country.

RIAS UDDIN ha detto...

Appadurai discusses the evolution of stable worldwide interactions and the tensions between cultural homogenization and cultural heterogenization. Inside the article, Appadurai explains how the not unusual version of knowledge of the global financial system does no longer in shape with the ever-increasing and changing cultural mixing on this current era. The preceding thoughts of separate “center-outer edge fashions” and “push and pull (regarding migration concept)” do no longer correspond to the “moves,” as he calls them, of cultural expression. Introducing the terms of ethnoscapes (motion of people), mediascapes (motion of media), technoscapes (motion of generation), ideoscapes, (movement of ideas), and finanscapes (movement of money), Appadurai discusses how these five crucial constructs overthrow the previous notions of separate economies and “natural capitalism.” essentially, those five dimensions of world cultural glide purpose a “disorganized capitalism,” which entails the separate, disjointed operations of the “financial system, subculture, and politics.” Appadurai states that to apprehend the way to conduct the maximum successful international financial system, the knowledge of these “diasporas” and movements of cultural merchandise desires to be completed.
I found this piece particularly interesting regarding the complete international financial system. It's miles charming to think about how every component, whether or not political, economic, or social, ties into making up a whole way of life. It additionally pulls at the fact that lifestyle isn't always one specific thing or idea, but instead the commodity of more than one elements. This text made me consider how each sphere is operated one after the other, and the misunderstanding or international miscommunication of 1 sphere can affect everything of the kingdom.

Alessandro Germani ha detto...

The social phenomenon that I want to analyse using the Appadurian model is the use of Internet. The structure of the model developed by Arjun Appadurai in his most famous article, “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy”, is based on five dimensions: Ethnoscapes, Mediascapes, Technoscapes, Financescapes, and Ideoscapes. Starting with the first one, we can say that the Internet is increasingly accessible to all the peoples of the world. Being without ethnical barriers, Internet allows different people to virtually move and meet, exchanging ideas and perspectives. Ethnoscapes in this case study is the virtual global migration flow, composed by various people from all over the world who are travelling for different reasons. Mediascapes, instead, is the flow of information carried out by both traditional media which now approach the Internet and new media as the social network. Interestingly, we can observe that, through the latter, individuals themselves became transmitter devices (think about the “share” button on Facebook) or even sources (think about the “post” button on Facebook) of information on the Internet. This analysis is about the use of Internet, but what is the Web without people using it? As Technoscapes, we can say that it is a tool, specifically an IT tool initially developed for military use under the name of Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) project of the United States Department of Defense. Internet does not allow only the movement of people, but also of capital. From stock exchange to e-commerce, it is a flow of financial resources constantly moving all around the world in a click. Moreover, we must bear in mind that all “platforms”, including online encyclopaedias (e.g.: Wikipedia), stores (e.g.: Amazon), social networks (e.g.: Facebook) and the recent “sharing economy” (e.g.: Uber, Airbnb) are actually private companies with private interests, and they are the only ones which at the end of the day set the rules. And thus we arrive to Ideoscapes: even if it is true that the use of Internet allowed the creation of a new ideology, namely a virtual participatory democracy characterised by freedom of speech, it is also true that this democracy can be virtual not in an IT sense but in a literal one, namely illusory.