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giovedì 9 novembre 2017

Anthropology of Globalization for Global Governance #10 & #11

 6 and 8 November 2017. Religion, culture and globalization, these the topics for this double class. First we visited the Sanctuary of the Divine Love, on the via Ardeatina. We wanted to see with our eyes what it means when a pilgrimage becomes a procession, and discover the huge moral distance between the old and the new sanctuary.
In class we discussed on a more theoretical level the impact of Catholic religion in shaping a city like Rome and the social consequences on the organization of space.
It was important to insist of the fact that locality is socially constructed and religion, through its RITUALS, offers one of the strongest tools for that construction. We saw how many replicas of the icon of the Divine Love there are in Rome, as signs of the need to anchor one’s life to some physical element in the space.
Then we analysed the second dimension of religion in the urban space, namely its capacity to project the city, like a brand, on a global scale of visibility, and we considered the role of John Paul II in globalizing Catholicism through his ability in creating MEDIA EVENTS.


Q1. After carefully reading the article on Homogeneity and Superdiversity in Rome, explain with an example of your choice how religion plays a role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome.x

55 commenti:

clara saglietti ha detto...

Rome can be considered a “religious global city” characterised by an intrinsic heterogeneity both at a hyper-local and macroscopic level. It is considered the centre of Catholic Christendom, but it both attracts diversity and assists to a process of super-diversification. On the one hand, there is a pluralisation of traditional places of worship for different religions and on the other hand a pluralisation and innovation of the ways in which the sacred place is conceived and used, with an increase in more flexible and hybrid alternative solutions.
Such processes can be traced back to the Middle Ages, but became visible with globalisation and international migrations, which firstly caused the de-territorialisation of religious traditions and then a process of re-territorialisation. In fact, new communities tend to appropriate new urban spaces without renouncing to their customs and beliefs, shaping them consequently. More precisely, it is possible to observe three different modalities: the most dominant Christian traditions use place-keeping strategies, diaspora and migrant religions choose place-making strategies and new movements adopt place-seeking ones. Therefore, old and new, traditional and innovative religious presences are dislocated between the centre and periphery and have a very different spatial organisation.
However, although 7.6% of people in Italy belong to religions different from Roman Catholicism, religious super-diversity is sometimes hidden, probably because of the cultural and political unpreparedness to recognise it. What is more, in Rome the city has faced a chaotic expansion dictated by housing needs and economic exploitation without regulations and the insurgence of a process of ethnic territorialisation is only recent.
It is the case of Torpignattara, a district on the outskirt of Rome built by people come mainly from the south of Italy to work in Rome and now inhabited by the biggest Bangladeshi community. They are Muslims and have shaped the space around them in order to practice their religion and create a sense of community. As often happens, they are organised in inappropriate and precarious spaces or adapt a previously different building to that function. The main mosque, the Central Masjid, is simply a big room of a palace with a divider to separate men and women, an introductive space to leave the shoes and a toilet. However, it is very famous in Bangladesh as it is linked to the project TMC, The Mosque Cares, whose aim is to coordinate the community of Muslims following the Imam W. Deen Mohammed and “to promote a self-sustaining method of community based, Muslim business entities for the growth and sustaining of present and future Islamic efforts”. Of course, it is not comparable with the Mosque in Parioli, the biggest one in the West, but it is an example of how religion influences the local dimension, managing at the same time to have a global resonance.

Cristina Bottoni ha detto...

Rome is a very heterogeneous city. Many nationalities, many cultures mix together in the city soil. Many students from all around the world come in Rome to study and many people to visit the city.
The fact that is the host of the Pope, makes Rome an hot spot for many Catholic people but also for millions of people coming from different religions (and parts of the world).
Religion can divide. Religion has actually divided many countries all over the centuries, has divided brothers from brothers, daughters from fathers, wives from husbands. Many wars have been fought over the years and continue to be fought because of religion. Many people died and are still dying because of religion.
But religion can also unify. It can unify all those people that share the same religion but come from different parts of the globe. Every time the Pope has held his public speech, the San Pietro square was filled of so many people that you cannot even distinguish them one from another.
The word “church” comes from the Greek word ἐκκλησία, (pron. Ekklēsía) which means "assembly". In fact, every church (in the physical sense, the building) in the world is a meeting point of many devoted people that meet together in the same place to discuss about their faith. The Church, with the capital “C”, has also the same meaning. With it, we mean “religion” (p.e. The Catholic Church, the Islamic Church). It is the place (not physical but mental) in which people coming from all around the world “meet” in order to share their faith, their thoughts, their feelings. People that feel part of a religion are never alone, practically. Think at that African or Asian person in front of you in the subway, that seems so different and far from your life. Now think at that person as someone that shares your same religion: does he/she seem nearer to you? I think that the answer is yes.
My experience in Rwanda results to be the perfect example to answer this question. This summer I went there for a couple of weeks both as a tourist both as a volunteer. I spent there a fantastic time and I met many adorable people. when coming back in Rome, I found out that some of the people that I met there were actually studying in Rome in some of the Catholic universities that every year collect many Theology students in Rome (Urbaniana, Gregoriana). I started this comment by saying that Rome is a heterogeneous city: religion plays a fundamental role in shaping the city because many people from all around the world come here in order to study at the Catholic universities and in order to be in the centre of the Catholic Church.

martina forbicini ha detto...

Among the worldwide metropolis, Rome can be described as the city in which religious diversity represents one of its most important features. In fact, by simply wandering around several neighborhoods, it is easy to notice a complex heterogeneity of non-Catholic presences and places. This variety might be attributed not only to international migrations and globalization but also, and mostly, to the status of religious city which has always characterized the capital of Italy, extensively spread in modern and contemporary society via tourism and media especially. Nevertheless, international migrations and globalization have played a crucial role in a first phase of deterritorialization of religious traditions and a second of reterritorialization, meaning the creation of new urban spaces without giving up religious beliefs and customs. Therefore, the attractiveness of this “city brand” to religious difference can be explained focusing on how different cultures look at it: it is a sort of stage of expression, where each religion can freely perform its identity without any exerted pressure to conform and passively adapt to one specific cult. A twofold process has resulted consequently: firstly, pluralization of traditional places of worship for different religions; secondly, pluralization and innovation in the way the sacred place is used. More and more often, we witness the growing phenomenon of religious superdiversity: the current shape of the public space in Rome would not be the same one without the Muslims, Jews, Protestants living in it. For example, this can be highlighted by observing the synchronic presence of ancient Catholic churches and modern architectural structures such as the Mosque or the Chinese Zen Temple or the Mormon Temple: in promoting the appropriation of the urban space by various groups, Rome makes the coexistence between old and new possible. It follows that traditional places of religiosity dialogue with new specific places in a mutual and constant confrontation, significantly contributing to the shape of the public space.

Nicolas Dietrich ha detto...

The article points out the religious diversity in Rome. In fact, although the city is known throughout the world for the Vatican i.e. the center of Catholic Christendom, it hosts also a heterogeneous set of non-Catholic presences and places, at both smaller hyper-local and global levels. The authors suggest that this super-diversity cannot be explained by the different migration flows that have occurred so far and the increasing globalization, but rather by the status of Rome as a “religious city” that attracts other religions and contributes to the increase of this diversity.

Many examples are evocated in the article and show that there is a pluralization of traditional places of worship for different religions as well as a pluralization of the conception of the sacred place. Indeed, we can see an emergence of non-conventional, flexible, hybrid or multi-faith places located in different social spaces such as park, squares, hospital or universities (and even in cyberspace). The authors categorize these places in three distinct strategies: place-keeping strategies for Christianism, place-making for diaspora and migrant religions and place-seekers for new religions.

Then, the paper stresses that this pluralization of religions is not well recognized in Italy and can be understood by cultural and political unpreparedness. However, 7.6% of people living in Italy do not belong to the Roman Catholicism, but to other religions such as Islam, Eastern Orthodox Church, or Protestantism. In this context, Rome has become a religious super-diversity both at microscopic, with a multitude of small invisible religious (non-Catholic) places, and macroscopic levels, with the largest mosque in the West and the largest Buddhist temple in Europe.

In order to illustrate how religion plays a role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome, the paper quotes five different examples. We will focus on the one of the Mormon Temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. In fact, it is an example of a non-Catholic religious group that constructs its own religious temple in Rome. The temple (which will be finished late 2018) construction can tell a lot about the religious diversity in Rome. First of all, the rapidity with which the project has been accepted by the Roman authority shows the efficiency of this community despite a hostile context toward Mormons. Moreover, in terms of architecture, the Mormons adapted their temple to the city (“designed to measure ‘up to’ the Eternal city) to avoid local prejudices. It means that while establishing in Rome, you have to build as the Romans do. Finally, like the other examples, this construction shows the new importance of this religion in Italy, where more than 30’000 persons are members of this community.

Francesca Scanavini ha detto...

Rome, as mentioned in the article “ When Homogeneity Calls for Super- Diversity” ( Valeria Fabretti, Piero Vereni 2016), is an attractor for the reveal of a plurality of religious identities from all over the world, and, the reason behind that, is its strong Catholic legacy that perpetuates a global image of the city as a religious centre. This reasoning could seem as a contradiction as much as explaining that the “impure” original nature of Rome, along with its huge Catholic symbol, embedded the essence of its fundamental role. Besides the spread image that religion addressed to the city on a large scale level ( global level), religion also affects the city space also on a hyper-local level where, on one side, there is the witness of the rise of non-Catholic groups realities, on the other, there is still a hidden side of the phenomenon accompanied by an unpreparedness of political and institutional realms.

But, moreover, always referring at the local level, religion plays a fundamental role in shaping and reaffirming people’s local identities. In fact, I have never realized before the great influence that religion, especially Catholic one, perpetuates in my city because having received a Catholic education background I have been always blinded in my known web of sign. However, thanks to this course, now I can see and understand through a more critical way the reality around. An example of how current religion plays a role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome, besides the new structures from non- Catholics groups believers that are being constructed, could be the presence in every neighborhood of small parishes that shape and create, slyly or not, people’s identity and strengthens their feeling of belonging to that specific neighborhood. It seems like an obvious conception, but actually, I have never reflected about the huge involvement that religion’s signs and symbols have in everyone’s life because, as everything else, it is part of the cultural bubble we live in.

Sara di fabio ha detto...

Within the post-secular frame, we can argue that in the city, religion and secular are interconnected and affect each other. Thus, what came to my mind is how the population, especially elderly, shape their life around catholic festivities celebrated by local churches. For instance, in my neighborhood, there are 3 main churches dedicated to three different saints which are celebrated in different periods of the year. In occasion of these festivities, the churches organize real parties with exhibitions, food, and small stands, even streets are decorated. The relevance of these festivities on the public space is evident both from the effort that the local community put in organizing the event and in the fact that people organize their agenda taking these special occasions into account. Thus, it emerges the manifestation of the religious belief. As stated in the article ‘the specific location of difference may play a central role in rendering it visible’. Although the presence of other religions in my neighborhood, they are not visible because of the lack of specific places where to celebrate their festivities. From an outside perspective, which is mine, in this case, it appears that only the Catholicism is affecting the public space. However, as part of the re-territorialization process, we know that people do not give up their own religious beliefs and customs. Testifying this, there was the case of some 'mosques in garages'. The last example, add more evidence to the interconnection between secular and religion because of the intervention of the police meant to close these places. Moreover, the 'mosques in garages' show the increase "in religious 'punctuating' social space by non-conventional sacred places".

Silvia Marcelli ha detto...

Rome can be defined as a global city, even from a religious perspective, indeed it is very often identified as the center of the Catholic Christendom, mainly due to the presence of the pope in the city. Nevertheless, by hanging out around the city you can easily notice a complex set of heterogeneity of non-Catholic places. Although this phenomenon cannot be easily identified as the outcome of migrations and globalization. Instead, it is the result of a more complex concept which derives from the "status" of religious city" which has always characterized Rome at a global level. Such thing has been possible thanks to the spreading in the contemporary and modern era of such "status" through tourism and media events. Despite that, we must remember that even though they are not the determinant causes, migration and globalization had played a very relevant role in the first phase of "deterritorialization of religious traditions", which eventually led to the creation of new urban spaces without the alteration of religious beliefs and customs created in the first place. What makes Rome so unique from this perspective is the fact that any cultures can look at it in different ways, exactly because Rome embodies in itself so many religious heritages. As we have seen in class, religions of any kind tend to create a sense of locality in which the individual can feel comfortable to perform its beliefs and customs. That, in some sense, is exactly what has happened to Rome becoming a "religious global city": it has become a "stage of expression", where each religion is able to freely perform its identity without feeling any pressure to conform or adapt to one specific cult. It followed from this an innovation process which took place in two phases: firstly the pluralization of traditional places of worship for different religions; secondly pluralization and at the same time innovation of how the sacred places were used to be used. The outcome of this long process is that Rome and its heritage would not exist without the contribution of the other religions. The example that best suits this statement can be simply found in a road trip around the City-center: going there you will find Muslim Mosques; Mormon temples; Jews places of cult and so many other representations of different religions which testify how the beauty of Rome derives from the combination, without adaptation, of tons of other cultures and religions around the world.

elettra schininà ha detto...

I’ve travelled enough in my life till now: I’ve been to China (in Nanjing, Shanghai, Beijing, Suzhou), to Argentina, to Tunisi, to Czech Republic, to France, United Kingdom, and few other European cities. Through this travels I can say that Rome is the most variegated city, with people coming from the rest of the world thanks to its characterteristic of being a religious global city. Even if China is like 30 times Italy, in Rome I have seen more and more different religions living together day after day. Rome is the home of Christendom (“we have” the Pope, the Vatican and so on.), but this doesn’t mean that other religions can’t exist and practice their cults. In Rome, diversity is expressed both at hyper-local level and at a macroscopically large-scale level.
I agree with the article in saying that secular and religious beliefs interact in a way that can sometimes move and reshape the dividing lines between them. This is possible in a post secular environment, “post secular means a change in content of society’s central values system in which secular and religious are part of the same field.” Rome is the main city in which this process is displayed. In particular, the visibility of different religious groups, demands, places and strategies of territorialisation is expressed in Rome. Such super diversity in Rome enriched the city trough a mutual learning of a post secular urban space.

gloria paronitti ha detto...

I must admit that I have never seen my city in such a different light, as the article presents it: for me Rome has always been the city of Catholicism, probably because of my family's beliefs, because of the presence of the Vatican State, of the Pope or because it is the city with the greatest number of church (I didn't find the exact number on Internet, but every source agrees on the fact that they surely are several hundreds). This, as we have said in class, contributed to the formation of a prevalent third sector, focused on welcoming pilgrims. It was not possible the thriving of a strong worker class in a city where there were already the Vatican and the Government. This is already an example of how the city has been shaped by the Catholic religion. By the way, today we find more than a church in every district, and all the Christians have a parish of belonging according to their residence place. Often those parish are not only places for worship: when I was younger, I was living in Centocelle, and right in front of my flat there was this parish that didn't host only the church with its religious functions, but also many soccer fields, volleyball gyms and many other places for many activities, from language courses to ping pong lessons. It was a place where anyone could go, even if believing in a different religion, since it was more a meeting place for the neighborhood and a playground open to every children than a religious place. For example, I remember a boy called Omar, he was always there. I didn't know him very well because he was older than me, but since my grandmother was a teacher and he was in her class I knew he was Muslim. I never saw him in the church on Sunday, but for the rest of the time he was always in that parish playing soccer with his friends. I also remember that one day, I don't remember for which occasion exactly, a contest was organized in the parish. I remember that all the participants were divided into groups, each one representing a different nation and its culture. I remember I was in the Chinese group so my mother went to buy some cloth to make me a beautiful kimono. All the work was obviously done under the instructions of a Chinese woman living in our same street and participating to the contest too. I reported these examples in order to show how the religion can shape also the suburbs creating meeting places, and in this case, to show how a small Christian community has welcomed foreigners, in a certain sense mirroring in a small scale what Rome as a whole is able to do on a larger one: giving to foreigner a roman identity.

Riccardo Santini ha detto...

When talking about homogeneity and super-diversity in the field of religion, my first thought is about the attempts made by religious currents to explain the mortal or immortal nature of the soul – the essence of any living being. Once a dear person dies, the funeral is carried out in accordance to the practices of each religion. But what links most currents together is the need for the family and the beloved ones to pray for the soul of deceased. In Rome, where the Catholic legacy lays, the multitude of religious groups required the building of public spaces where non-Catholic could practice their beliefs and exercise their religion in total freedom. Indeed, as stated in the article When Homogeneity Calls for Super-Diversity: Rome as a Religious Global City, religious diversity has fostered the pluralization of worship places (whether traditional places, such as churches, synagogues, mosques and so on, or alternative and more flexible spaces). As a result, Rome, the world capital of Catholicism, hosts several non-Catholic places, among which it is possible to find the Non-Catholic Cemetery, in which Protestant, Orthodox, Jews, Muslims and other non-Christians can bury their deceased and let them rest in peace. Such burial place for non-Catholic allows different religions to carry out their funeral rites in total autonomy, shaping the identity of non-Christians which can fit in such a diverse city like Rome. Multicultural places and zones are not rare in Rome, thus showing the effects of globalization in today’s society, redefining the cultural urban-spatial features of the Catholic City.

Francesco Bono ha detto...

Being a global city, Rome is populated both by original groups who converted their core business into the global form in which the city is specialised and by new groups who came to practise their business because it is consistent with the global form of the city. Roman global character is expressed by religion, meaning it wakes up assorted self-aware Christian believers, at the same time attracting religious diversity because of its religious wide appeal. This religious melting pot has deeply affected the space of the eternal city in two ways: increasing the number of places of worship and increasing and innovating sacred places. Christianity, still the most professed religion, is adapting the place-keeping strategy. Visiting the two temples at the Sanctuary of Divine Love, we could realise how innovative the new one is: much bigger, more accessible and structured to embrace all the people entering there, independently on their religion. In a place like this, religious ritual becomes more collective rather than individual. Looking at it with anthropological eyes, the Sanctuary seems to communicate the renewed strength of Christendom, confirmed by its roots, standing out in the old temple. Diaspora and migrant religions adopt place-making strategies: they are settled long enough groups, who are able to convert places already existent into sacred ones. They organize the space wherein they live to create a sense of community. Muslim believers are the most prominent groups in Rome. Apart from the official Mosque in Parioli district, they established all over the town several mosques, often in precarious and abusive conditions. An example is the one in Via dei Gladoli, Centocelle district. It was a 280 square feet warehouse which was converted into mosque and then evicted by the police in 2016 because of its abusive status. In February 2017, a sentence by the T.A.R., the regional administrative tribunal, established that the mosque could re-open because the claimed abusive status was unwarranted. New religious movements, religious groups that are settled not long enough in the town, are instead spiritually place seekers. An example of those are Hindus believers. Officially recognised as religion affiliation by the Italian Republic in 2000, they can rely on small religious centres, mostly founded by Italians converted to Hinduism. An example is the Kalimandir temple in Rome. Exclusively devoted to the adoration of Shiva and Kali, it hosts pilgrims from every religion who can pray and restore there. Every believer contributes to the maintenance and extension of the temple according to his/her economic possibilities.

Lavinia Apicella ha detto...

As we have had the opportunity to see with our own eyes during the off-campus activity to the Sanctuary of the Divine Love and also in many other occasions, Rome is a religiously global city, in which religious diversity takes place and has a fundamental role in shaping the spatial dimension of the Italian capital. The influence of the new religious communities in Rome can be seen mainly through its impact on the city’s architecture and use of public spaces. Despite the close link between the three elements of religion, tourism and architecture in Rome, the city has also many hidden places that contribute to the creation of its spatial dimension but are unknown to the majority of people. This is due to the fact that the urban and periphery of the city have an extension of many kilometres and it’s impossible to get to know some areas if you don’t go there on purpose. For example, before reading the article on Homogeneity and Super-diversity in Rome, I knew about the existence of the Mosque, the Synagogue and the Buddhist temple, but I had no idea that there are so many religious communities actively established in the city, with hundreds of thousands of followers, such as the Mormons.
When my foreign friends come to visit me in Rome, I usually bring them around to visit the city centre and the main historical and famous sites, such as the Colosseum, piazza Venezia, Pantheon, Piazza di Spagna, and so on. However, whenever walking in some smaller street or unknown area, they usually start asking me about every church that we pass by: “What is this church called?” “Have you ever been here?” “Can we go in?”. Most of the churches and religious buildings that we encounter during our walks I know nothing about because I have never noticed them before. And every time I go somewhere in Rome, I discover something new, a new church or temple or street. This makes me realize how infinite the city is in its spatial dimension and how diverse within its multiple areas. To me, as an Italian, the most visible signs of the huge role of religion in shaping Rome are of course Catholic temples, both old and newly built. Since I live in the northern part of the city, I am confronted with an everyday reality mostly dominated by Catholicism, but I am becoming more and more aware of the cultural and religious super-diversity of Rome, that has always been but is now evolving in an even more global city. The fact that it has the largest mosque in the west and the largest Buddhist temple in Europe are only some examples of its religious diversity.

Federica Barbera ha detto...

Rome. Only one word is enough in this case to evoke a mystical and mysterious atmosphere together with a well-known solid historical background. In fact ,this city has been the most important centre of power for empires, dominations and kingdoms both secular and religious. Besides the great presence of artistic and historical patrimony which draw the interest of millions of tourists, Rome represent also the heart of the Catholicism thanks to the presence of the Vatican State and of the Pope. Millions of pilgrims choose every year Rome as their destination to confirm their faith and to admire the roots of their religion. While walking through the Eternal City you can enter hundreds of churches and cathedrals and looking at the inestimable pieces of art that they preserve. However with the advent of mass media communication the figure of the papacy has changed from a complete private and secret one to a public personality. None of the less if we look with greater attention we can see that the extreme catholic environment has not prevented other religion to establish their main places of worship there, on the contrary this acceptance of religious faith has encourage them to display their own belief and to take a position into the various religious context of Rome. A good example for this process is the annual Muslim prayer under near the Arc of Constantin, Colosseum during which the common space becomes for that period of time an open air mosque.

Federica Barbera ha detto...

In the course of the centuries many attempts were made to try to render religion a private question however this was impossible to reach in Rome where the enormous presence of pilgrims ensure a flourishing economy. Now I want to focus on the fact that the Catholicism has been always in different forms a religion of display, in the sense that there were two layers of faith: the private one which you experienced at your inner level and the public one that was shown through the participation at the common practises and traditions. I think that this is due mainly to the important role that community has and the great visibility that it implies. Since in the article the authors mentioned the Holy Vergin of the Divine Love I would like to make my example following the particular rituals and celebration linked to the Mother of God. While walking through the streets of Rome is not uncommon seeing statues or images of the Virgin Mary and the more you go into the small villages you can see her representation on street walls or even near the entrance of private houses. The message is clear and it is destined to everyone: at this place we are devoted to the Holy Vergin. Therefore the private worship of a saint or in this case of the Theotòkos, has suddenly become public and visible. Since we discussed also about procession I would like to report an example that triggered my curiosity even if it does not concern the municipality of Rome. In the village of Cassano Ionio( Calabria) there is a quite interesting religious procession which involved directly the community. Each year during the Holy Friday( the one that comes before Easter celebrations) there is a procession in honour of the statue of the Suffering Holy Vergin there placed. The peculiar characteristic of this procession is that some girls are chosen to be dressed up as the suffering Vergin and participate to the procession as symbols of devotion. Being chosen to be one of them is a great honour. Moreover this practise has a great meaning also for the rest of the community. For example when one of this girls stops at your house in order to rest you should be delightful because you have the opportunity to offer your service to a religious representation. Thus both the girls and the community are happy to openly show their service to the community here one again the private faith has become of public domain. In some sense also this influence on the community has created a public space in society. In order to go back to the central question I would like to conclude my entry with an obvious description. If you go to any terrace that offers a view of the landscape of Rome the first things that you will notice are the numerous cupolas(domes) and on the top of that the symbol of Christianism( not only of Catholicism).

emmanuel Krah Plarhar ha detto...

Coming from a different county and continent, I had this idea that all people living in Italy especially Rome were Catholics. The reason was that Rome is proclaimed the center of Catholicism and mainly because of the Pope in Rome. But upon getting here I realized there is religious diversity and it is characterized by an intrinsic heterogeneity both at a hyper-local and macroscopic level. Back in my country whenever someone says Rome or Italy the first thought that comes into my mind is The Pope and Catholicism. As the articles stresses on religious diversity in Rome, I strongly agree because it has brought all other religions around the world together. In most countries, there are religious persecutions and religious diversity cannot be found and it is quite fascinating how many religions and tribes are in Rome. Internationally, Rome is recognized as a city which has its foundation built on Catholicism. Rome being a city which is the center of Catholicism also host heterogeneous set of non-catholic presences and places. One might say the city is diverse because of international- migration or globalization but it is due to the fact that it is named socially as a religious city.

Heterogeneity can be found in Rome because the roman religion has a local sense of identity. A local sense of identity in the sense that it creates comfort which allows other religions to also feel comfortable to operate. As mentioned in class religion is one of the most powerful tools in Rome and it produces its identity through mass media which was broadly made aware by Pope John Paul II. Also as the article says that religious diversity travels in two directions which is pluralization of traditional places of worship and pluralization and innovation of the ways sacred place are used. Walking through Roman streets, one sees many churches, mosque, synagogue etc this shows and clarifies how diverse the city is. In my view I see this heterogeneity in Rome because of the direction the Catholic Church has taken. Churches are recognized thus religiously marked in Rome because of the Catholic Church. Religion has created a public space in Rome because it has brought all other religions together and it has made its original role known in representing diversity on a macroscopically large scale.
Also upon the visit to the Sanctuary of Divine Love and comparing the two chapels, the bigger chapel accepts all and in there everyone is treated equally. Talking of pilgrims, not all participants of this ritual in the Sanctuary are Catholics and it generate a sense of locality. People from all over the world participate in it and recognized it.

Marco Siniscalco ha detto...

Rome, the “Eternal City”, has been a holy place and an internationally fundamental city since ancient times. Rome’s history comprehends nearly 2800 years, in which it has been the seat of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire, the Papal States, the Kingdom of Italy and the Italian Republic. The first known temple in Rome was erected around 575 BC. A Jewish community was settled in Rome in 161 BC and remains active today. Christians arrived in the 1st century AD, and Rome has been the core of Catholic Christianity ever since. Rome’s copiousness of old temples, synagogues, churches and shrines make it one of the greatest cities to traverse the sacred places of a variety of religious traditions. The “Eternal City” is the core attraction of a plurality of religions from all over the planet because Catholicism produces its own globalization (especially through mass media and media events), the image of the city is presented on the global stage (local identity exploited on a global stage). Popes worked to offer a visual support to their ideology and soon it was evident that the expansion of the city was directly related to foreigners, newcomers and pilgrims.
An example of how current religion plays a role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome could be the presence of small parishes in every neighbourhood. Religion and secular are linked together and affect each other. Every year, for instance, some parishes, to celebrate a saint, organize parties and processions with food, music and so on. Therefore, the local community makes a great effort to organize such religious events and people organize their day taking these special occasions into account. Thus, it appears the expression of the religious belief.

Riccardo Poggioli ha detto...

I believe that the definition of Global City would perfectly fit on Rome, which expresses in the best way the concept of globalization and multiculturalism. A city of thousand tones, dipped in the past but at the same time looking at the future,(sometimes it seems to me too slowly unfortunately). Religions have always had a fundamental role within the frame of the city since the first period of development of this city.
Rome became the pre-eminent Christian city based on the tradition that Saint Peter and Saint Paul were martyred in the city during the 1st century. Meanwhile during the contemporary era especially in the last thirty years, the migratory phenomenon has contributed to change the religious panorama of the Capital that, even though slowly in comparison to the other European nations, by now it is to all the effects a multicultural city. It is really to Rome, in fact, that the greatest Mosque in Europe is found, a point of reference for the Muslim community of the capital from the 1994. In 2013, besides, Rome has given the welcome one to the greater Buddhist temple of Europe, in the east south outskirts where the community Chinese has founded a second Chinatown, after that of Vittorio square. In the end of 2015 then, the greater Mormon Temple of Europe was inaugurated.
Within the shade in the Vatican spread out among the hundred churches that fill Rome, the places of cult are a lot of that become also fundamental centers of aggregation especially in the outskirts: mosques and Hindu temples alternate him to churches Baptists, orthodox and Chinese.
My personal experience related to the multi-religious side of Rome was related to the high school. My professor of religion really cared a lot about the different religions within Rome beyond Christianity, for this reason after the theoretical lesson in class about a religion, he used to bring the whole class to the place in which this religion was practiced. I still remember when he brought the class to the muslim temple in Centocelle. I expected to have in front of me a big building with a characteristic entrance, but I found myself in front of a garage a bit doubtful, asking myself if I was in right place. Once entered I understood the importance of the “place”, for those who believe the place it’s not only a physical matter it is a place of and for the mind, reflection and thought. Thanks to this visit I got the importance of the religion that can affect the surrounding environment even if at local level, that could be a good starting point for a further development of the belief.

Melani Perera ha detto...

Actually, when we talk about, how religion plays a role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome, Rome can be considered as a "religious global city". We can see different nationalities and also different cultures mixed together in Italy, especially in Rome city. The article points out the religious diversity in Rome. Obviously embedded not only culturally but also 'spatially'- within Catholicism, the city also hosts a heterogeneous set of non-Catholic presences and places also, the article mentioned the Rome city as the ' ' religious city ' due to its extensive Catholic legacy, which promotes ongoing religious ' appropriation ' of the urban space by various groups. This appropriation occurs when the two levels (hyper local and global) overlap on the terrain where Catholicism is historically rooted in Rome. Rome as a national brand carries the general meaning of the Catholic city. Also, the Rome is a place where religion is a shared.
When we go to the Vatican City in Rome, we can clearly understand why we can say ' global city ' to Rome. Because, it is the most global with the people coming from all over the world. I would like to tell about the Catholic people in my country. In Sri Lankan Catholic people trust and think Rome is the heart and home of Catholics because of the Vatican, Pope and so on. But in Rome, diversity is expressed both at hyper - local level and at a macroscopically large - scale level.
So, the Rome is the world capital of Catholicism host several non - Catholic places also like, synagogue, mosques, temples, non - Catholic churches and so on. For an example it has the largest mosque in the west and the largest Buddhist temple in Europe and also pope in the capital city. From those facts shows us how religion plays a role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome and also the religious diversity in Rome.

Zikang Zhang ha detto...

Super-diversity is developing, using the same twofold path which is hyper-local and global on the global scale. Religious super-diversity as seen in Rome is the combination of a strong local religious identity. Come to Rome as a foreigner. I was shocked by the roads and souvenir shops at the very beginning, and I was able to see postcards, calendar memorabilia with papal photos everywhere in Rome. At the same time the Catholic centre, Vatican is located in Rome. Religion is prominent in Rome compared to the other countries that I have been to. As Rome is also a super tourist city, the traveller from other countries, who will come here to admire. Catholics from different countries are also very willing to come here to worship.
On the other hand, affected by the global migration and regionalization, which provoke the de-territorialization of religious traditions, end up implying processes of re-territorialization, by which communities appropriate new urban spaces without giving up their own religious beliefs and customs. We can see the socio-religious geography of Rome is changing, making more and more visible of diversity. Because of that, we can see different churches, such as synagogue, mosques, temples and the people wear various clothing like Sari, Nun robe, Hijab and so on.It can be said that religious pluralism has been fully penetrated and infiltrated in Rome.
In general, the article states "We see the notion of post-secular as the most fruitful narrative that has emerged as an alternative to the failures of classical theories of secularization to address the renewed role of religion in the contemporary urban and public realm", which is adopted Contemporary multi-faceted reconstruction of religion to explore, get rid of foresight in modern life, the secularization of urbanization theory.

Chiara Muzi ha detto...

“Nullus locus sine Genio” is a statement of the roman commenter of the Aeneid Servio, who lived in the 4th century (A.D). In classical Roman religion, a genius loci was the protective spirit of a place. It was often depicted in religious iconography as a figure holding attributes such as a cornucopia, patera (libation bowl) or a snake. What however Servio fails to specify is that Rome never had only one genius loci. Even if Augustus managed to spread the worship for the Genius Augusti, Rome has always been a place were many genii loci contended its territory and population. If today we can define Rome as a “religious global city”, a case sui generis, it is so because this is the result of a millennial process, that permeates the ground and the air of the city really like a protective spirit. It is a process that was neither continuous nor uniform, but it has certainly to do with the cosmopolitan face of the city, that as early as the Republican age and throughout all the Imperial age was probably the largest city on Earth. It is in this large span of centuries that religions started to converge, mainly coming from the East, and settle in the city, making Rome already the “brightly lit religious stage”. A physical and archaeological example is the Church of San Clemente, divided in three levels, where the two ancient ones are respectively a Church of the I century and an ancient Mitreo, a temple dedicated to the worship of the Eastern god Mitra. Of course, when comparing such different ages, we have to proceed with particular caution: globalization and migrations, as well centuries of sovereignty of the Catholic Church domination, have completely changed the face and the spirit of Rome and the world as a whole, but what my little historical excursus was meant to say was that Rome has always had a special allure and attractiveness for religions, because of its plurality and diversity. The process of secularization, together with globalization and migrations that caused a de-territorialisation and re-territorialisation (in the Eternal city in this case) of religions brought both a different conception of religiosity (and the way of performing it) and new spaces to be occupied or shared by different religions (and their consequent social impact). The Catholic legacy has worked as a moulding agent and religious super-diversity is a phenomenon that permeates the city despite the cultural and political unpreparedness to deal with diversity. It has to be remembered that until 1870, religions other from Catholicism were not allowed to officiate inside the Aurelian walls and within the borders of the Ager Pontinus; when Rome became part of the Italian State freedom of worship was granted, and two years later the Episcopalians were building a new church on Via Nazionale. In the 1980s religions other from the Christian- Judeo traditions started to flow into the country. Given the moral status of the city the new cultures preferred to communicate sub specie religionis, transforming Rome in the perfect stage for religions to show themselves. The presence of such a diverse landscape of religions, with their struggle for the appropriation of spaces, has surely moulded the public space in Rome: the process of secularization has changed our way to perform our believes but it didn’t wipe away religious centres of aggregations and their strong presence in the social fabric. From charity organizations (such as Comunità di Santo Egidio) to more localised realities, all religions actively dialogite with roman citizens through concrete actions in everyday life.

Sara Massimi ha detto...

Rome is a shocking city from the point of view of religion, indeed, even though we can affirm that for Italians is not only the capital of the nations, but also the religious capital of Catholicism, in which spiritual power and temporal power ca still be feel by the population. As a matter of fact, I believe that Rome, still maintains some of the ancient characteristics of 1870, in which the spiritual and temporal power of the Catholic church were finally separated, thus leaving the Catholicism just to consider its spiritual power, while leaving Italy managing also the temporal power of Rome. As a matter of fact, being a roman citizen, I can perceive that in the city the 2 powers are still strictly linked together, and it is not only because Saint Peter is of the Catholic Church, it is because all the city in some way or the other breath Religion. Let’s take my favorite neighborhood as an example: Rione Sant’Angelo. My mother used to work in the “Dipartimento Pubblico Spettacolo” of the municipality of Rome, that is located in the building that faces the Ruins of Teatro Marcello, that building signified for me not only the entrance to the Rione, but also the to that particular and beloved space that was every time a discovery, but also that resembled so much the magic places of those Films from Roberto Benigni that are so popular in Italy. For our purposes, we will take a look in Rione Sant’Angelo that, however is a closed and small neighborhood, breathe religiosity from every pore of their buildings. Furthermore, we will consider all religions (from the ancient roman one, to Catholicism and Hebraism). Rione XI (Sant’Angelo) is the smallest in terms of area among all the rioni of Rome, however, I was able to identify 14 religious sites in the smallest Rione of Rome. Indeed, in the architecture of the rione and with the passing of the time it is visible that not only some religions (mostly Catholicism and Hebraism) interconnects and they merge in the rione, but also the architecture of some important roman temple, will merge with the churches.

Sara Massimi ha detto...

Chronologically speaking, we can find the Temples of the Foro Holitorium. Those were built in the republican era and were the 3 main temples and then a fourth built by Cesar, destined to the cult of Diana, while the main ones where the temple of Giano, temple of Speranza and the Temple of Giunone Sopita. Those temples are now part of the Structure of the Basilica of San Nicola in Carcere (the church is the venue for the cult of the Holy Mary for both the Virgin of Pompei and the Mexican “Nostra Signora di Guadalupe”. Nearby there are the Temples of Apollo Sosiano (the only temple destined to the cult of Apollo in whole Rome) and the temple of Bellona. Nearby, in Piazza di Monte Savello there is the Church of S. Gregorio della Divina Pietà, in order to let you understand how Rome is and extremely intricate mix of religions that are strictly united among themselves and the architecture of the city is explicative of this, it is important to mention that on the façade there is a script both in Latin and in Jewish that shows a passage from Isaiah. in fact, the façade is located near the two gates of the Ghetto. Then there is the Chiesa di Sant’Angelo in Pescheria from which in 1347 Cola di Rienzo begun the conquest of the Campidoglio. Near via del Portico d’Ottavia stars the Old Ghetto. His history started the 12th July 1555 when Paolo IV, through papal bull, locked Jews in this area. In it, however, 3 churches remained. The Ghetto ceased to be the point of reclusion for Jews in 1848, and the same night the walls the walls were destroyed. The area was then demolished in 1885 and the Jews were granted citizenship, therefore, the whole neighborhood was then reconstructed with its synagogue. For the will expressed by the Roman Jews, the new Temple had to emerge between the two most important symbols of the rediscovered Roman freedom: the Campidoglio, the seat of the Commune next to which is the monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, and the Gianicolo, the place of the most rugged Risorgimento battles where is the monument to Garibaldi. The lack of ancient models and the attempt to free themselves from the models of Catholicism made architecture privileged rather than style; the result was an eclectic building inspired by Assyrian-Babylonian shapes. In the Rione, then are also visible the Tempietto del Carmelo, a small catholic temple for the S. Maria del Carmine, in which for some time there were the sermons to Jewish people then the Chiesa di Sant’Ambrogio alla Massima, Chiesa dei SS. Sebastiano e Valentino dei Mercanti, Chiesa di S. Caterina dei Funari, Chiesa di S. Maria in Campitelli, which the Romans in Piazza Campitelli vowed to in 1500 to save them from the plague, Chiesa di S. Rita da Cascia, and finally, Chiesa di S. Stanislao dei Polacchi a church that had also a hostel for the polish pilgrims that would have come to pilgrimage from 1570 on. From the view of this small neighborhood we can see how intertwined among themselves are the various religions but also people from various parts of the world.

Ganna Korniychenko ha detto...

Rome has an high percentage of different nationalities and religions living together.
Multi-Ethnicity strongly characterize the city where people are free to organize their personal believes and religious practices. Many people come to Rome with religious organized trips with their group and meet for example in San Pietro square; this describes perfectly how international and open is the city. The role of the Pope is fundamental for this purpose of openness and tolerance.
Italy has an average of 54 % of Christians, 32% of Muslims and 7% belongs to oriental religions. Christians are still the majority but other religions are growing fast because of migration issue.
In 2017 Rome was called the center of Mosques that are now more than one hundred. This sort of liberalization is good for democracy and it is strongly needed by globalization process in which we live nowadays. The main problems are linked to wrong usage of buildings which lack of legal authorizations and security standards. Although free rights for people belonging to different religions is good, we need to improve the implementation of laws related to the usage of public space. Italy is fighting with terrorism issue and local authorities need to check more and more specific suspected places which are considered as danger for the community as a whole.
The muslim community is represented by the Union of islamic people in Italy which regularly organize meetings with the ministry of internal affairs of Italy but some measures taken by this latter were not well accepted by the muslim community and a lot of manifestations followed the measures of checks and restrictions. The risk of extremist infiltration is still really high and represents a possible dangerous place for the spread of distorted Islamic religion.
The biggest Mosque in Rome is situated near villa Ada and it is able to host more than forty thousands people during Ramadan. Other Mosques are located in the peripheries but also near Esquilino. Authorities listed official Mosques and try to manage security issues that instead is difficult in unofficial places which are usually hidden from the whole community and has to be managed in order to preserve the security of public spaces.

Mohammad Almulla ha detto...

Coming from outside Europe and taking a look at Rome i have always knew that it was the center for Catholicism, and that is especially visible by having the Vatican city the pope the churches and many other symbols that have existed for many many years, but when I arrived here I have noticed that the city does not only represent the Catholic part of society as it represents the many sides in this world as it is clear by the churches of the different branches of Christianity. Rome has accepted the many diverse religions in this world by many means wether it is buildings, monuments, art,etc..
One of the things that I was really pleased to see was that the biggest mosque in Europe is built right in the eternal city, and from my visit to the mosque I have noticed how Romans accepted Muslim culture, also the way they have accepted it by for example in the great mosque how they built the pillar just a few meters less than the highest pillar of the Vatican.
Concluding Rome is unique in the way it has accepted this diversity in religions and also how it built its own marketable identity or brand by having people visit the city for religious reasons.

Sara Marcucci ha detto...

As we all know, Rome has always been a cosmopolitan city; ever since it was born. As an Empire, it conquered several territories, coming into contact with many different people and, consequently, religions. The new divinities and beliefs were often somehow included into the roman culture and religion.
The modern Rome is not so different from the ancient one, after all. It may sound weird, since the city has been the destination of Catholic pilgrimages for centuries now, being the cradle of Catholicism and "hosting" the Vatican. Catholicism is also the predominant religion among people, with a 82% of prevalence, but it's not the only religion that drives the city.
While the secular Jewish presence is consolidated, there is now the need of providing places of worship to the new incoming religious communities, doing just what the Empire did. The pluralization of traditional places of worship for different religions is a "first phase"; then, the pluralization has to be accompanied by the innovation of the sacred places already existing.
The international migrations we're currently witnessing, also with the globalization phenomenon we're all very aware of, started a process of "de-territorialization" of religious traditions, and eventually let to a second phase of "re-territorialization", namely the appropriation of new urban spaces without the waiving of old religious beliefs and customs.
Just like the Roman Empire did thanks to its conquests, we're now coming into contact with a variety of religions from all over the world, thanks to the above mentioned international migrations: Rome has concretely and visibly changed together with its population, and it is in a constant evolution that involves both its intangible religious beliefs and its tangible religious architectural structures.
All around the city, indeed, one can detect how religion concretely shapes the city. You can see the ancient San Pietro, the Waldensian Evangelical Church, the Roman Mosque (the biggest mosque in the western world), the Great Synagogue of Rome (one of the biggest synagogues in Europe), the modern "Hua Yi Si” Chinese temple (also, the biggest in Europe) and the Mormon Temple: all hosting different religious communities, all referring to a different temporal era, and all giving their own contribution to the city's life.



Ilaria Miligi ha detto...

The city of Rome has always embodied, even in the past, the role of religious global city. It is a city widely known for its peculiar features of welcoming city, open to everyone, carrying inside the result of the urbanization process as a result of its long tradition. The spiritual features of its existence are rooted in the physical characteristics of its urban aspect.
Globalization changed not only the religious practices, but also the flows of religious communities, and with it the new ‘spatialization’ of religion. Globalization triggered the process of de-territorialization of religious communities moving to other countries and spaces and consequently the process of re-territorialization of them. The outcome of this complex phenomenon is more evident at the urban level rather than at national level.
Pluralization goes hand to hand with innovation, since there are innovative ways in the religious communities of conceiving the rituals and the beliefs. This ‘innovation’ is the same that pushes the religious communities to transform public areas in prayer rooms, is the same that triggers the processes of place seeking, place taking or place making.
I would like to focus on the muslim community nowadays in the city of Rome, but first I would like to underline the controversial aspects of this city. It is internationally recognized as the mother of the catholic religion of course, because of its history and its physical buildings. At the same time Rome is a modern city which also hosts religions, and one of the examples is the biggest mosque in the west. An other important aspect is the one regarding the historical origins of the city, one of the most relevant signs of roman ness is surprisingly the existence of a radicated jewish minority. So Rome is clearly a controversial city in which the religious communities can find a place for their living. An example is the muslim community near Magliana. This community found a place in this mosque and when they arrived they were absolutely outsiders, with no job and speaking no Italian. Now they are perfectly integrated with the society, they work and they speak Italian and they have their own place to practice their religion.

Tamoi Fujii ha detto...

Rome has a natural propensity for religious discourse, which has always been present, since the "Collegium Pontificum" in Ancient Rome to the Roman Catholic Pontiff. The religious language is contagious, and the Catholic Church didn't just borrow religious festivities like sundays and Christmas, but also physical places, as the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the Pantheon, both transformed into Catholic Churches, or the Basilica of Saint Clement built on a mithraeum.

Catholicism is everywhere in the city, but the transformation of the city became systematical and planned only after the establishment of the Jubilee, and the constant influx of pilgrims. Some examples are the existence of Via delle Sette Chiese e Via Merulana, which connect important churches. It is also not a coincidence that some of the biggest squares in Rome are located just before the 4 papal basilicas (with Piazza san Pietro built as to embrace the faithful, who approaches Mother Church).

Catholicism always exerted power on Rome, and it continued to do so also after the fall of the Papal State. A strong representation of the special bond between the Papacy and the Fascist regime is Via della Conciliazione, which connects the Vatican to the city centre (where the Italian political power lies).

Also, places which aren't strictly religious become frameworks for broadcasting religious message nationwide if not globally. An interesting case is the Colosseum, which is the stage for the famous Via Crucis during the holy Friday, but it turns to praying place for Muslims during Eid (with often live broadcasting on tv).

elisa felici ha detto...

In a city like Rome religion has always been within the city system. As a matter of fact it is hardly impossible to think about Rome as a dissociated entity from its religious dimension. The “Eternal City” is so not only because of its tremendous long lasting inhabitation, but also because of the role it plays as the capital of Christianity, where the Temporal power of Roman Pontiff resided for centuries.
Rome indeed shaped and developed under the ramification of Christianity and Catholicism, both because of its being the point reference of a strong shared belief and because most of its structural, cultural and identity developments occurred under the incentives and inputs of the ruling religious power. Ultimately religion radically changed Rome’s face and urban space more than any political power ever did.
Is it still so? Does the religious element embedded in the stratification of the city still affect its structure, flows and possible growth?
If a certain dimension of religion is its capacity to project the city, in this case Rome, on a global scale, the “media era” we are living in does nothing but amplifying this effect. The recent mediatisation of any social happening did not exempt the religious world. From John Paul’s II media events to the mere fact that Pope Francis owns today a Twitter account, this phenomena engaged religion and the Catholic world, maybe exaggerating and stressing even more its symbolic dimension. This way Rome, the Eternal City, has become even more so: an even tighter label has been attached to its identity, since the symbol of the Pope/Church grew stronger on the public arena.
In the way this strong label still acts on roman urban dimension I would like to bring the example of the way Rome and its institutions reacted when the threat of terrorism sprung around Europe.
Within the last two years several terrorists attacks occured in center Europe, all of them claimed by the Islamic State. In their fight against the faithless occidental way of living, Isis repondently threatened Rome. Symbol of christianity and therefore of the unbelievers, berceau of the occidental culture, by carrying out a terrorist attack in the Eternal City Isis would have mined the (apparent) very symbol of a whole culture. On the other hand being Rome not only the standing concept of a culture/belief, but also its objective host with Saint Peter’s Basilica and The Vatican State at the hearth of the city, the urban space of Rome had to adapt to these threats, adopting some security measures. Via della Conciliazione was closed to the traffic, many Metro stations, especially those close to cultural symbols such as the Colosseum or other cultural hubs, are still today under the constant control of the military. And this of course affected and still affects roman urban space. It changed its structure a bit, it affected its mobility and flows, it influenced even its citizens: for example I remember having some thoughts when taking the subway during the winter of 2015, and sometimes I still do.
Threats to Christianity meant threats to its symbols. Rome, the greatest and most stressed one, was mined by these threats and the whole city, even metro Circo Massimo which has nothing to do with a religious dimension, was carried down in an optic of security and safeguard. The religion dimension Rome owns still affects its urban dimension as a city. It is a secular union hard to dissolve where these two different faces, the one of a city and the one as symbol of a whole credo, overlap and blend in a continuous and involuntary discourse.

Claudia Schiavelli ha detto...

Rome is currently living the acerbest phase of its post-secularism era; when the elements of religious creed are mixing up with those of economic globalization and migrations. As the definition of post-secularism dictates, religion and modernity are not two alternatives to choose between but they are the two faces of a medal, between which an enriching discourse must be established.
Such a discourse is particularly interesting in Rome, where religious super-diversity can be observed at its finest. The social and historical status of Rome as a religious city responded to the migrations, and consequent diversification of the social strata, by becoming an attractor for other religions and a push for other types of diversities to express themselves in religious terms. Therefore, it's important to underline that religious diversity in Rome exists because, and not despite, of its Catholic legacy.
It might represent "a fertile soil for the religion seeds" for those who want to have their religious creeds symbolized and embodied by a sacred place and that is why in Rome it's erected the biggest Mosque in Europe and so on.
A historically important example is the Valdesian Evangelist Church in Piazza Cavour. It has been constructed in the beginning of the 20th century in a symbolic place for its proximity to both Castel Sant'Angelo and S. Peter, where important figures representing the religious trend were burned for heresy. The construction of this church gained much attention because it represented a fundamental step towards the Roman, and more generally Italian, openness towards Protestantism.

Selene G. ha detto...

As the article points out Rome is a religious center and you may even say a capital for Christianity. But it also shows us the diversity of Rome and the many different religions that have found a part in the city. These religions and mostly Christianity form a public space in Rome, like almost no other factor. Already when we look at tourist coming to Rome many come to visit the Vatican. These tourists add a big part of the life in Rome and the interaction in the city. To show how religion can play a role in a society, I would like to give a personal example. I do not believe, neither in the Christian god or in any other god and honestly I never cared. In my hometown we have a lot of different ethnicities and with this many different religions. But there is a law in my state that Wednesday students must get off School earlier so the children or teenagers could go to bible studies or participate in other church activities. This also meant that most sport trainings weren´t Wednesday or any other activities. For me those were the days I would go home at 12:45 and be home alone until the evening when my parents would come. Most of my friends would complain about their church activities the next day, but they still made friends there and had an activity that connected them. I remember being quite jealous of this “closed” society where I wasn´t able to enter. Especially when they planed trips and went skiing or camping with the whole church group. This of course is a small example of me as a child but I do think you can compare this to Rome. Not the part of being jealous, but this part of having a connection and a place to carry out activities. Many public spaces in Rome have religious signs on them and people meet in groups to worship them. What I like about Rome that it isn´t just restricted to one religion but it has a little part of almost any world religion. Additionally, I enjoy the fact that I don´t feel excluded, even though I am not Christian I can still enjoy certain activities within the religious boundary.

Carlotta Frasca ha detto...


There is no doubt that in Rome has always been historically busy, full of continuous invasions, change in leaders and of course religious orientations.
Being a huge city it embraces many people with of course different backgrounds and beliefs; infact as stated in Rome as a religious global city “We can think of Rome “International migration and globalization, which firstly provoke the de-territorialization of religious traditions, end up implying processes of re-territorialization, by which communities appropriate new urban spaces without giving up their own religious beliefs and customs” as cited in Rome religious global city. “
Rome is mostly known for the Vatican city, as the main point of reference for Christians, the Pope in fact, representative of the Roman church, dwells in the city.
Though the Islamic community has grown significantly, due to immigrations from North Africa and Middle East, leading the “comune” the promotion of building the largest mosque of Europe that has been inaugurated on the 21st of june, 1995.
Anther important fact to prove my point is that the Jewish Community of Rome is the most ancient in Europe. Now there are about ten Synagogues of different traditions in Rome, all Orthodox (Italian, Askhenazi, Sepahrdic). The Community organizes several events to promote Jewish culture inside and outside the Community.
Although many cultures and people coexist in the same city, a pretty good balance has been created and people feel free to belong to their community feeling free of being themselves.

Rebecca Biraschi ha detto...

Rome has always been a “religious city”, a favourable stage for the visibility, encounter and the coexistence of religions. Rome is commonly known as the cradle of Catholicism, hosting the Vatican city, and the Pope. However, Rome is also a laic modern city as the Italian constitution states in articles 3, 7, 8, 19, 20, 21, 117 comma 2 letter C, through the principle of secularity, which grants the freedom of religion. Therefore, the city of Rome has always been the showcase of religious and secular processes that are characterizing our globalized era. The religious heterogeneity is perceived not only on the smaller scale, but also at a macroscopic level, exemplified in the shape of the public space of the capital city especially through places of worship. Several are the proofs of this religious heterogeneity, beginning from the presence of the Jews in Rome, which is very old, as evidenced by the excavations in Ostia Antica, where there is the eldest European synagogue, dating back to the first century AD. Among the Jewish places of worship in Rome, the main one is the Synagogue, inside the Ghetto, dating back to the late nineteenth century.
Rome hosts since 1992, the Mosque, the largest in Europe, testifier of the presence of the Islamic community in the capital city.
There are also Protestant churches that date back to the period after the unification of Italy when the city was removed from the Vatican to become the capital of the Kingdom. The eldest is the church of San Paolo dentro le Mura, the episcopal Anglican church of America. The Buddhist trace is not missing, indeed, Buddhist temples can be found in Rome, like the one in the Esquilino neighbourhood.

Lavinia D'achille ha detto...

Rome is considered to be the heart of Christianity, but of course due to wars,invasions and migrations throughout centuries has became the cradle of so many religions making the city a cosmopolitan and global one. Furthermore one of the main causes of influence has been its nature of conqueror, which pushed Rome to became of course open to other cultures and this allowed the city to absorb values and traditions from other countries .
Nowadays, even if from a superficial point of view, Rome could be considered mainly Christian,but it is not,in fact it welcomes so many religions and as a matter of fact, according to the process of secularization,as the article “Rome religious global city” says, Roman and more in general Italian religious composition has changed a lot across centuries.
We can say that now the city we are living in is the result of a process of development and diversification because of different ramification of Christian creeds,and also due to the always growing presence of other religions which made Rome a “diversity within a diversity”. Another point that the article underlines is the fact that previously the socio-religious geography of Italy and the distribution of social spaces designated to religions were less visible. Now the diversity is rising more and more becoming more evident,but even if these hidden sides are becoming clear, due to lack of institutional and cultural preparedness and the lack of communication and the spread ignorance the side of diversity is quite hidden. However Rome, as a matter of fact, is a social laboratory due to its diversification and its nature of meeting point of cultures, that’s why the definition of “global city” is the one which fits better to Rome.
One example of how religion plays a role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome is the Buddhist temple in Via dell’Olmo,which is the biggest temple in Europe and everyday thousands of Buddhists go there in order to share their religious life with other believers.

Arianna Patrizi ha detto...

The reading of the article on Homogeneity and Superdiversity in Rome, revealed to me an hidden reality of my city of which i was completely not aware.
Maybe because of my poor knowledge in the field of religious environment, i had always considered Rome as The Catholic city par excellence, where any kind of other religious creeds’ attempts to enter in the public stage, have been suffocated by the too historically strong and ancient tradition of Catholicism.
On the contrary, as stated in the article, is the same extensive catholic legacy that characterizes Rome, to give to it the label of “religious city” that acts as an attraction for religious difference, which sees in Rome a possibility to express itself.
Of course, the intensity of attraction does not corresponds to the effective capability and will to welcome it, that’s probably the reason why, on the surface, Rome still appears to the people as a pure Catholic City (like it was for me).
Anyway, the increasingly great religious diversity, also according to the data, is undeniable ( 7.6% of people living in Italy do not belong to the Roman Catholicism) and it is spreading itself not only on a cultural level but also spatially.
Over the years, the religious scenario in Italy (and so in Rome) is clearly changed, we could just think about the five years long and complex debate, discussed by the European Court at Strasburg, about the presence of the crucified Christ in italian schools, which has been object of serious polemics and that, in my opinion, represents the needs and claims of a a new society moving towards a global religious direction.
The urban space is of course the most physical demonstration of this ongoing transformation in Rome, in fact, lately the capital has been the set for the establishment of canonical places of worship for different traditions.
An example of how in Rome the urban space is shaped by religion could be the San Pietro e Paolo Basilica which stands out in the highest point of the EUR, and has become a distinctive characteristic of the neighbourhood and also a meeting point for guys who call it “SPEP”.

Iza D ha detto...

Rome is both a global and a traditional city. It is a global city due to the consideable migration flows that cohabit this big city. It is, however a traditional city. The presence of religion and its representations is part of the culture. For what concernes Rome, the huge and easily noticeable presence of catholic representations all over the world is not only an important element, but it is part of how Rome has been conceived. The massive presence of churches and cathedrals as well as most of artistic representations, have to do with catholicism. This has to do with and it is profoundly rooted into a tradition that is to be traced in medieval times, a tradition that deeply influenced all the aspects of society. I started this post saying that Rome is both a traditional and a global city. On the global side, migrations contributed to bring to Rome many different beliefs apart from catholicism. Many different temples and sacred places can be found. I personally know that in Rome there is a quite vast community of Romanian ortodox people and the bishopric is situated in Rignano Flaminio, near Rome. There are also temples of other religions, like, for example, a mormon temple in Bufalotta, if I remember well. There are also mosques, induist and budist temples. They are, however, not very noticeable, but they exist.

Giorgia Morucci ha detto...

ROME: the city that managed to become an Empire, has always had a natural vocation for a borderless cosmopolitanism. During the innumerable conquests of several territories and populations, which occurred at an exorbitant speed over the centuries, Rome got in contact with many different religions and different deities. Sometimes these religions were incorporated in the Roman Society, while in other cases stranger religions were banned and were prohibited to be professed publicly – often with very hostile consequences. However, we can see how many places, not only in Rome, but also in its surroundings, still carry the legacies of cohabitation of religions. For example, we can find, spread across Roman territory, many ancient Jewish synagogues dating back to the I-II century A.D. - that existed even before the birth of the Christian worship.
Indeed, Rome as we know it today, does not differ that much from what it was in Ancient Times: it still welcomes eagerly - and probably even better - cohabitation of religions. Judaism is the oldest religious presence in Rome and Catholicism has become THE RELIGION of Rome – due to the presence of the Vatican State – but nonetheless the increase in religions present on the territory has brought about the need to offer new worship places, with the purpose of allowing the new communities to pray and profess their own religions – exactly in the same was as in the past, where different temples were scattered around the City. Thus, we can clearly observe that there is an intention to broaden the religious landscape more and more. Indeed, Rome in particular – and Italy more in general - has now acquired an important multi-ethnic and multi-religious role at the global level, while it still maintains its title of Holy City.
As a matter, of fact, even if Rome has always been a cosmopolitan and religious-tolerant city, priority has always been given to Catholicism. Hence, religious-tolerance has sometimes been compromised by laws that restricted the freedom of certain religions or to be more precise – of all those who were not Catholic. Many places can confirm it. The main example is the non-Catholic cemetery in Testaccio. According to the Pontifical State’s legislation, non-Catholic people could not be buried in Church nor in the “holy ground” (meaning the territory of Rome) and the burial of these people had to be carried out at night. Therefore, at that time, several Protestants, who died on the Roman territory, had to be transported to Livorno, where there was an English Cemetery. The Non-Catholic Cemetery in Rome – as we know it today – came to life only in 1817, when Prussian, Hannover and Russian diplomates received from the Pope the permission to enclose an area in Testaccio where there were some graves, in order to make it an official non-Catholic Cemetery. Today the cemetery hosts about 4000 graves, belonging mainly to English, German, American, Scandinavia, Russian, Greek, and perhaps also to Chinese people.
Therefore, I would like to conclude by saying that Rome cannot be defined as the Holy City only, as it comprises many other religions. Therefore Rome could be compared to a mosaic, where many pieces (in this case Religions), all different among themselves, combine together to create a magic and surreal atmosphere.

Sonia Matera ha detto...

In class we studied how religion plays an important role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome. In addition, we visited the Sanctuary of the Divine Love, a fundamental point of reference for Catholicism.
From “When Homogeneity Calls for Super-Diversity: Rome as a Religious Global City” by Valeria Fabretti and Piero Vereni, I acknowledged that there are at least 23 small shrines in Rome with replicas of the Divine Amore.
If one tries to see the city from the religious point of view, it is impressive the level of influence it has on public space but also, I would add, on public life.
Franca Giansoldati writes in “Il Messaggero”, a famous Italian journal, that religious tourism in the world moves 20% of the population. This means that every year, 20% of the world population decides to take part to a pilgrimage to different religious sites following their own religion. To be concrete, it is estimated an economic turnout around 18 billion of dollars!
Rome plays a crucial role in this scenario, it is considered the religious city par excellence. San Peter represents the most chosen religious site by tourists and as V. Fabretti and P. Vereni write: “ With its two ‘record places of worship’ - the largest mosque in the West and the largest Buddhist temple in Europe - and a number of other relevant old and new religious establishments, Rome constitutes a sort of ‘brightly lit religious stage’ on which different traditions and organisations play their institutionalised and international role ”.
Now, my point is that the current shape of public space in Rome is determined mainly by religious sites. Taking for instance tourism, the touristic map is developed according to different churches. When you have to organise a trip to Rome, one of the first thing you think of are religious sites and the economy of the city is based also on that. The majority of restaurants, souvenir shops, public transportations are close to religious places. This is not something to give for granted because, in my opinion, it is quite unique and characteristic of Rome!

Md Ashique Ali ha detto...

If I think Rome and its multi religious cultural identity, I would prefer to make a point my own. Its going to be 15 months, I am in Rome. The first place I used to live (Via Dell’Aquila Reale, 22, Torre Maura) belonged to an Indian Sikh (Panjabi). The landlord was not much religious but his son, he was typical Sikh (Panjabi) with turban, long hair and beard (Sikhs don’t cut the body’s hair since the birth, as I mentioned in an earlier comment), the son routinely went to the Gurugwara (prayer place for Sikhism) in center of Rome. As he told me, there are some Guruqwaras in Rome, Sikhs normally and peacefully gathered for prayer. There was an Hindu family as well as, husband, wife and a kid, the family always wend to the Mandir for Puja, they told me about different Mandirs in Rome, Om Hindu Mandir, (Via Amedeo Cencelli, 23, Roma, 77) Kali Temple, (Via Oreste Ranelletti 52, Rome 66) and the Unione Induista Italiana or Sanatana Dharma Samgha, (Via Arno, 38, Roma 98) is active for the religious places and Hinduism, Hindus in Rome are not only Indian but from Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Philippines and from the other countries. Once I found a follower of “Hare Rama Hare Krishna” in metro A (a different ideology of Hinduism), he was probably an Italian with religious books, the ISKCON (Via di Santa Maria del pianto 16, Rm 86) is the organization for them. I got information about a mosque near the place from the Bangladeshi Alimentary shop (I bought the foods there) and planned to go there, on the next Friday (the Jumma, a special pray of the week), it was not a mosque look wise but a place, basement of a building. I found there around 100 or more people, majorly Bangladeshi, Pakistan, some Africans and few Indians. The Imam delivered speech in Bengali, Urdu and Italian languages. It was purely unknown experience, the curiosity dragged me to the Grand Mosque of Rome (Viale della Moschea, 85,199 RM) on the Eid Al Fitr, the people were from all over the world (Arab, Asian, African and Westerners), I was having this moment first time in the life, the shops, smells, noises, and the environment, everything and corner was a story it-self, I can’t erase the images of the place. Now, I live at Via Mario Angeloni 13, I met a Buddhist girl at the present place of mine, an Italian, she is a follower. She mentioned many Buddhist religious places and its active organization in the city. Therefore, I got this much multi religious cultural influences in the Rome in this brief period of stay, it gives me curiosity If I search, off course will find much more. Here, I didn’t need to say anything about Rome and its role for Christianity that’s well-known all parts of the world.

Marianna Sabatini ha detto...

Religion in Rome has always played an important role not only for its social values but for many other aspects. From a political point of view religion has been important in periods like Renaissance in which new beautiful churches and other religious buildings were built because it was known how "beauty" influences people. Moreover from an economic point of view, pilgrims come in Rome for religious purposes and they are a source of money for the citizens. Rome is usually associated with Catholicism since it is where the Pope resides, it has an old history with this religion, there are hundreds of churches and it is an important point of reference for pilgrims. However it plays a role also for other religions, like Hebraism and Islam. As the article mentions, the Jewish "ghetto" in Rome is one of the most ancient in the world and the biggest mosque of the West is located here in Rome and it has been financed by the king of Saudi Arabia. In Rome people feel free to perform their identities, whatever they are, because they see the possibility to create a physical place in which they can exercise their religion. Those physical places are important also from a social perspective because they become meeting places. The Sanctuary of the Divine Love is relevant in understanding how religion plays a role in creating social spaces. Rome is widely recognized as a religious city - mainly for its ancient link with Catholicism - and this recognition is what attracts other religious groups.

alice occhilupo ha detto...

The G-local dimension of Rome was underlined when in addition to the IUS QUIRITIUM (law of the Romans, in order to receive protection from the community you had to be a roman “citizen”) the IUS GENTIUM (legge della gente, dei popoli) was introduced, bringing the concept of “the law of nations”, that set of ratio naturalis rules, which “accomuna” (links) every human being in every place and time. The Roman Empire had always had this g-local approach. But let’s talk about current days, Rome is perceived from a lot of religions, as an attractive place where to show their own magnificent self. This determined the fact that much space of Rome is reshaped in order to give room to the multitude of different religious traditions and habits. We all know that in Rome, there is the biggest Mosque, the biggest Buddhist temple, the Mormon temple is in being built and so on. But why so? The Catholic church plaid a fundamental role in the administration of the city of Rome, especially of the “foreigners” of the 3rd sector, the tourism, since the pilgrims when visiting Rome, increased the circulation of money, by buying “souvenirs”, and it still like that, if we only think about how many tourists=money brings in, the Vatican City. So the Catholicism has always had a lot of representations in Rome and a lot of power, Rome gave space to Catholicism, or better catholic church took create by itself the space, to expand, to be showed to shine, reason why other religion think they may have a chance of granting visibility if placing in Rome.
to be continued....

alice occhilupo ha detto...

....Beside the fact that every 10 steps in Rome you find a beautiful catholic church, and that there are many international religious infrastructures, it is interesting to see how the way in which the urban space is used changed over time. The most fitting example that I can talk about is the different structure of the old and new Sanctuary, in Divino Amore. The old sanctuary, it is full of votes to the Virgin Mary, is actively lived by practicing Catholics people, is characterized by the memories of the sign that each “practicer” left over time. The room in which the priest, preaches, is shaped in the classical way; the benches are not lot, there is a traditional altar, behind the latter there is a big cross, decorations and on the ceiling, there are some frescoes and decoration as well. The new structure, on the contrary, seems not to be frequented, lived, experienced at all. There is a big huge open space with much more seats, there is a podium with a microphone, painting on the windows (much more brighter the old one) and a peculiar fact is that the confessional is in the very back, in a corner, like wanting to clearly separate the two spheres. I seemed more like a place where to do public motivational speaking rather than where to do a mess, this makes us realize the transformation of the Cristian practices. It makes me think about the movie “Se Dio vuole”, inspired from a true story, the story of a priest, who used to be a pusher and drug dealer, and now, as a priest, he has an innovative method of preaching. He goes to “centri sociali”, to disco-pubs to do informal motivational meetings based on the bible but presented in a creative and sincere way, not like the boring traditional mess. Even small vectors can make consolidated old trends change and switch directions. Just like John Paul the II did with the idea of sacred role of the Pope turning it in a celebrity of the media events. In Rome there is a combination of traditional religious places and of spaces reshaped for religious practices of every kind (like volunteering, informal motivational speeches, Oratory activities and so on), I would have a multitude of examples, here just some: Piazza san Pietro, Communità di Sant’Egidio, Caritas, votes to the Virgin Mary on walls, places transformed in room where to pray, traditional catholic churches. There is a strong increasing of de-centralized religious systems directly connected with increasing globalization and population growth like is similarly explained in the article- hyper-local and global- (When Homogeneity Calls for Super-diversity: Rome as a Religious Global City- Fabretti; Vereni).
P.S.: My grandmother used to go by foot from Torpignattara to the Divine Love once a month (I just thought it was interesting)
I think today totally decreased the number of people reaching a specific religious main center, since there are so many religious places created locally. (just I thought, I do not have statistical or empirical evidence)

Alend Hawar ha detto...

me as a non European students here and coming from middle east, i always had that thought that Rome is the home of Catholicism, either from seeing it on TV, movies and reading books. so many years ago while i was still descovering Rome while i was still back home by reading things about rome i never thought after coming to rome to see actually how diverse it is, although what shapes rome is obvious just by mentioning the Vatican city and the big number very old churches here in rome. also me coming from from a muslim country where ever we go we first ask that city has a mosque or not (that is a fact about muslims) specially a city like rome, and i was surprised and pleased to hear that the biggest mosque is built right in the eternal city, personally i havent visited it yet but will one day but from seeing its pictures and how great it looks is something very amazing.

Alessandro Germani ha detto...

The role of religion in the so-called Eternal City is certainly fundamental. But not religion in general…the one which bears its name: the Roman Catholic Church, the largest Christian Church in the world. Indeed, it is headed by the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) and its core is the Holy See, located in the Vatican City, enclaved within Rome. Moreover, the Italian capital has more than 900 churces, from early-Christian basilicas in the city centre such as the Basilica of Saint Sabina on the Aventine hill, to modern churches in the outskirts such as the Jubilee one (Church of God the Merciful Father) in Tor Tre Teste, not far from where I live. While the first one is famous for being simple and artistically beautiful at the same time (Santa Sabina is the oldest Roman basilica that preserves its original colonnaded rectangular plan and architectural style, with the decorations restored to their original restrained design), thus an artistic masterpiece, the latter is a masterpiece of engineering: the walls are designed to control internal heat, minimize thermal peaks and temperature variation and, interestingly, to self-clean themselves destroying air pollutants thanks to the introduction of titanium dioxide. According to Bernabei ("Chiese di Roma", 2007), “In the churches of Rome you can find evidences of all eras, of all stages of culture and history, of all architectural style, of all artistic schools”. All this is what I thought before reading “When Homogeneity Calls for Super-Diversity: Rome as a Religious Global City” (Fabretti, Vereni, 2016). With this paper I realized Roman religious super-diversity not only on a microscopic level, which I knew already by personal experience, but also on a macroscopic one: Rome, indeed, hosts also the largest mosque in the West and the largest Buddhist temple in Europe.

Uroš Ilić ha detto...

One could justly argue that Rome itself became the city it is today because of the Catholic church and its central presence (the Vatican). Much of Rome’s prime real-estate is owned and influenced by the Vatican. However, it would be wrong to say that Catholicism is the only religion present in today’s Rome. Italy itself has 7.6% of its population, practicing different religions such as Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Mormonism, Protestantism etc.
Religious leaders certainly hold a responsibility for intercommunication which is why many religions have large centers in Italy’s capital. The Mosque of Rome is the largest mosque outside the Islamic world while the Buddhist temple here is the largest one in Europe. These macrocosmic places are only a part of the influence of public space. The more hyper-local religious centers and communities forming around them can be explained by the in-migrations of eastern Europeans, south-east Asians, and North-African Arabs. The Bangladeshi community on the outskirts of the city being the largest one. Let’s not forget (as if it can be forgotten) Rome is one of the world’s largest touristic centers and as such attracts members of many religions so one might conceder the presence of religious entities as catering to the tourist population. I’m looking forward to seeing the establishment of the Korean Christian church. One also must commend the avoidance of religious tensions in the city in recent years. The Islamic state (or what’s left of it now) has declared Rome as its final goal yet not much animosity towards Muslim’s can’t be felt in the city. Instead, Romans have taken a serious approach to collective security and have been faring better than most of European capitals. As we continue down this globalization road, one can expect the development of large cultural hubs with their own cuisine, shops and religious places, taking Rome to a new level of globalization similar to that of large US cities such as NY, Chicago etc.

JINGYUAN LI ha detto...

I come from another continent from Europe, before I came to Italy, whose capital city, Rome is famous for its being Catholicism center of the world. The most architectures of Rome that I noticed are mostly beautiful catholic churches. However, through this lecture study, the essay “When Homogeneity Calls for Super-diversity”, and also our practical visit to the both old and modern Church Divino D’Amore, it renewed my knowledge of the Rome city. My old “stereotype” of this city, which is famous of Catholicism should be renewed as a “comprehensive religious city over the ancient and modern times.”

Vertical angle:
In the essay, what impressed me the most was part of “ The changing scenario in Italy ”, I personally am interested in the dynamic development change of religion. When it says that religious diversity travels in two directions which is pluralization of traditional places of worship and pluralization and innovation of the ways sacred place are used. It makes me think of our off-campus trip to Divino D’Amore. Where we visited the old church and then the “theater-shaped” modern church. I saw the harmony between the two different styles churches. The modern one was with the functions of all the traditional catholic church that supposed to have: “cross”,”statue of Maria”, pray chairs etc. However what I observed was the design of that modern church made everyone equal, simple and clean, in such a large hall with colorful glasses reflected the sunshine. It broke my impression of catholic church and let me know that dynamic changes are happening in this religion.

Horizontal angle:
According to the essay, 7.6% of people living in Italy do not belong to the Roman Catholicism, but to other religions such as Islam, Eastern Orthodox Church, or Protestantism. In this context, Rome has become a religious super-diversity both at microscopic, with a multitude of small invisible religious (non-Catholic) places, and macroscopic levels, with the largest mosque in the West. From this perspective, the religion diversity appears between different religions, Rome has Vatican meanwhile has the biggest mosque in Europe. They exist in the harmony way. I really would like to visit the mosque in Rome.

Iva Budakova ha detto...

So many speculations about Rome as only a Catholic place, so many people when they hear the word “Rome”, imagine just the Pope, coming and speaking for the Catholic people. But as a person who lived here for more than a year I cannot say that I know a lot about the city but from what I have seen and experienced it is so much more than a magical place.

The widely recognized status of Rome as a religious city is mainly because it’s extensive Catholic Legacy as Vatican City. It is a city where religion is shared. This religion can be seen from one side as a banal Catholicism and from another side as an attraction for many other different religions. To be more specific, I can say that different species can be attracted to the same area, but they adopt their own visions. Religion diversity is expressed in two main directions. Firstly, pluralisation of traditional places of worship for different religion and secondly, pluralisation and innovations of the ways in which the saved place is conceived and used.

To be one of the super-diverse cities, Rome gave diverse communities taking specific path and following different communities. It is really interesting to see how the city develops because pluralisation does not exist despite but as a result of the mainly Catholic Legacy.

As I said before, Rome attracts a lot of religions and gives them the opportunity of identification. An example of that is the biggest Zen Temple in Europe of the Mosque. The expansion of Rome itself as a religious form thought old and new diverse and modern approaches. That is why Rome is considered as a religious city collecting not only Catholic religion but highlighting it in details and showing everyone that globalization thought differences is possible. But at the end no fact can be change and no speculation can be made because “Rome is Rome”.

Elsa Maria Festa ha detto...

Rome speaks a language that does not need words, communication takes place in terms of public building design through which identities are shown. And how do people express their identities? In the Eternal City, where there is a call for religious diversity, identification happens in a religious jargon.
The narrative about the urban space of contemporary cities is linked to the relation that exists between religion and modernity, a relation that should be looked at with new perspectives in order to interpret it not just in terms of secularization. Understanding religion and modernity from a postsecular point of view gives the chance to consider the hidden parts of the urban dynamics,in which the secular and the religious are part of the same system. Rome, a city where religious differences are expressed on a global stage, is an interesting case study to be analyzed from a postsecular point of view.The Eternal city is deeply involved in international migration and globalization, phenomena that involve, as a consequence, processes of re-territorialization. In the city emblem of Catholicism other religions do not merely conform to the Vatican model, they instead proudly perform their identities. In order to show their religious beliefs, as their identity, they need a space and therefore there is a process of appropriation of urban spaces. The process of re-territorialization in Rome takes place everywhere, chaotically, from the center to the periphery. In the periphery there are neighborhoods born in the early decades of the twentieth century that before were pure countryside and that later became irregular urban spaces. Districts like the ones between Prenestina and Tuscolana, with the Casilina in the middle. Since the end of the eighties these neighborhoods, in particular Torpignattara, have begun to be repopulated by immigrants, first of all people from Bangladesh. Professor Vereni told us in class that if, when traveling the world, we meet someone from Bangladesh and we ask them if they know Torpignattara they would probably immediately say yes, it is not a case that the place is often referred as Banglatown. In Europe live approximately 700 thousand people from Bangladesh, in Italy 150 thousand. The community of Bangladeshi is the fourth largest community in Rome, 5 thousand or even more live in Torpignattara. Approximately 88% of people from Bangladesh are Muslims and have more than one place of worship only in Torpigna, but the spaces are often precarious and not appropriate. A clear example is the Torpignattara Muslim Center, in via Carlo della Rocca 25, that is physically only a really big room but that has a deeper meaning, it gives a sense of community and identification. The case of the Islamic places of worship is only one of the many that can be considered, a case that shows how religiously variegated Rome is.

Giorgio Severi ha detto...

Rome as a global city is a place where many different religions meet and intersect, shaping a space for their own not only in geographical terms but even defining the cultural and social life of it.
Christianity has always strongly and deeply influenced and shaped Rome both architecturally and socially, is enough to think that for centuries the Pope reigned in the city.
Moreover rituals had been foundamental in creating locality. Indeed through this tool, one above all the processions, of which the Divine love is the most impressing example, religion organized the social space and created a sense of belonging which even though not natural is essential for human beings.
This locality, in a sense, had been spread to the world particularly under Pope Wojtyla, ending the closeness of the Church and opening to mass events and travels around the world which made possible a globalization process and allowed the projection of the idea of Rome as a stage for religion on a global scale. This attracted beliviers from every part of the world and every religion.
One example that comes in my mind is about the rituals. This summer I did an internship in a video news agency and being the office settled in Rome, the main interest was the Pope and therefore we followed him quite everywhere in during his movement in the city. During the traditional Sunday blessing, even though we were there for the Pope, was impossible not to see the belivers there coming from all over the world each with their own flags and chants in their own language. I remember that even in the sorrounding or in the subway going to Saint Peter, there were believers ready to take part to this ritual. It was clear to me that this ritual was not at all a specific Roman business but that locality had reached a broader sense.
Furthermore globalization together with the idea of Rome as a city where religion has strong roots, attracted religious diversity. Indeed all the religions has places of worship in Rome, as the city represented a stage with incredible visibility and echo.
A clear example of it, is the Mosque, the biggest in Europe. During Ramadan me and my friends always go just otuside the temple after the sunset, because there are many stands where you can taste specialities of Middle East traditional food.
The most interesting thing is that in this occasion is possible to find belivers together with non practicing muslims and infedels just going there for the food. That's an example where religion shaped the social life and the public space.

Grace Mageka ha detto...

Tracing Rome history some years back; everyone agrees that Rome is the mother of all religions around the world, for instance we can see that the Forum Romanum, was a small space but also was the central to the function and identity of the city of Rome and the wider Roman empire. The Forum Romanum a key role in creating a communal focal point, one toward which various members of a diverse socio-economic community one could imagine. There was a very large amount of commerce between the provinces of the Roman Empire, since its transportation technology was very efficient. The average costs of transport and the technology were comparable with 18th-century Europe. Life in ancient Rome revolved around the city of Rome, its famed seven hills, and its monumental architecture such as the Colosseum, Trajan's Forum, and the Pantheon. The city also had several theaters, gymnasia, and many taverns, baths, and brothels. Throughout the territory under ancient Rome's control, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas, and in the capital city of Rome, there were imperial residences on the elegant Palatine Hill, from which the word palace is derived. The vast majority of the population lived in the city center, packed into apartment blocks. History of Rome shaped to public space in Rome with religion at the center and this went beyond Rome and today we can testify that the religion and their leaders in many parts of the world have a privileged role in certain public, political ceremonies for example, inaugurations, opening of parliament, among other events. Instead of privileging a particular religious group, a state could simply enshrine a particular creed or belief system as its official religion.

ALICE97 ha detto...

Rome has always been a cosmopolitan city. Since the Roman Empire era the conquering of an impressive amount of territories transformed it in a real center of heterogeneity, and it still is nowadays after all.
The Catholic Church has not only deeply influenced the society and the lifestyle for example with its religious festivities, but also in a more physical and evident way. For example the Pantheon transformed into a catholic basilica with the edict of Milan. Another example could be how the city has been shaped, speaking from an urbanistic point of view, with the Jubilee massive pilgrimage that occurred that brought to the creation of streets that connect the most important churches of the city, such as Via Merulana.
The Catholic Church has always exerted an impressive influence also on politics, up to recent times such as during the fascist period, in which the Lateran Pacts of 1929, which remained unvaried up to 1984. During the Mussolini dictatorship we remember the creation of Via della Conciliazione, which connected the center of the religious power to the city center, heart of the political power. This can be interpreted as an attempt to symbolize the new deal that promoted the support of the Church to the regime with the “Patti Lateranensi”, solving the “questione romana” that went on sinse the promulgation of the "Legge delle Guarantigie”, that provoked a negative reaction from the Pontiff side.

Oliver Tomassi ha detto...

Through the article on Homogeneity and Superdiversity in Rome we have understood how religion plays a role in creating the current shape of public space in Rome. It is interesting to see and compare the different religious frameworks in the context of the same city, and their effects on locals and also people around the world. All of the 5 models of expression of religion mentioned in the article are very pronounced in the Roman landscape. However I would like to take into consideration a less evident religious group: Nichiren Buddism of Soka Gakkai. This is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese Buddhist priest Nichiren Daishonin which witnessed in recent years an amazing spread and boom in participation in Europe. This spread has particularly touched Italy, where the biggest community of Europe resides. This is not surprising since Italy, with its epicentre in Rome and the Vatican, attracts all sorts of religious forms. But differently from other religious institutions, the Soka Gakkai has built its most prominent and attractive building in Milan, whereas in Rome there is a plain and modest building on Via Tiburtina. This can be due to different factors, such as the very limited number of adherents to the practice, but there might also be a connection between the building and the role that Nichiren Buddhism has assumed in the West, and in Rome in our case. Contrarily to most religions, the gatherings of the participants are not in public and outstanding buildings such as Synagogues, Churches or Mosques, but in private homes. The participants meet and after chanting the Nam Myoho Renge kyo and Gongyo, they share personal problems and insecurities on relationships, family and work. The public space Nichiren Buddhism occupies may have a tight connection with the easy going and quite meetings of the members. The ties are built in-between the members and the meetings are organised by spread of word. Inside a group (there are different groups for different areas of the city) all members know each other very well, and thus every one of these groups resembles a small community of people who share deep and personal bonds. It can be thus argued that Nichiren Buddhism does not need a space, it has found a way to spread its word (through its participants) without the need of being publicly visible, which would also entail challenging the stunning buildings of more popular religions, to which Nichiren Buddhism cannot compare with the numbers. Often Nichiren Buddhism is associated with modernity. This aspect is intrinsic in the features of the practice itself, which has spread in Europe just in modern times and approaches people with very different or even contrasting backgrounds, religious people who are Christian or Muslim can become part of these groups, in fact being a member entails being spiritual, not religious. Being a member of Soka Gakkai does not imply believing in a God, each one of its members has its own views on life, religion and spirituality, which enriches the evening discussions after the chanting sessions.

matteo sarcinella ha detto...

The cathcolic religion is part of the soul of Rome, indeed we call it Roman Catholic Church and it shaped my city through many different sources, structural sources such as the incredible amount of churches and basilics in rome but as well spiritual sources that have modelled the common moral thought. In the article of superdiversity and heterogenity in Rome I understood that Rome has many differents religious reality and every single religion plays a key role in shaping not only the thoughts of the believers but their environment as well, we found a clear example in roman periphery in which cultural diversity increase much more than in the city centre were different religions coexist in Torraccia in rome we can find some muslim's unsafe mosque created illegaly whithout any safesty standard but that are still utilized from various muslim, but we have different case even in the city centre, I can mention the official mosque in Parioli ,one of the richest part of Rome that is mostly inhabited by italian's of the upper class, that has created an incredible religious activity and as well In testaccio città dell'altra economia there is the biggest Curd community have developed a own sunny mosque, according to the article this hiper local-diversity should be atttributed not to globalisation or different migration flows of different cultures but rather to Rome as a spiritual city, so concluding Rome as we studied as gain a symbolyc value and developed through times a general conception of spiritual city in which different believers from different religion recognize themselves. I could notice that in the Divino Amore that has a symbolic religious value not associated with christianism.

Lucia von Borries ha detto...

Rome is a space where heterogenous religions come together. Besides being the hub for Catholicism it hosts the biggest Mosque in the West as well as the biggest Buddhist temple in Europe. While reading the article on homogeneity and superdiversity in Rome one particular passage helped me understand the paradox Fabretti describes, the idea that Rome, “the” Catholic city, acts as a space for religious super-diversity attracted by its homogeneity. She interpreted the phrase “When in Rome, do as the Romans do” as ‘when confronted with a local context, learn local forms of communication and adapt to them’. This is not meant as something suppressive, but supports the idea that diversity expresses itself differently in different places, in Rome, known for Catholicism, it expresses itself in the form of religion. This works in both ways: choosing Rome as a stage to ensure religious specificity highlighted by the genius loci, the given atmosphere, and asking diversity to express itself within the local context i.e. religion. This can especially be seen in the Jewish quarter of town which is said to preserve a form of “romaness” that is fading in other parts of town more confronted with globalization. Besides the Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewish traditions, it hosts a unique Roman Jewish tradition. In a way the heterogenous religions aid the process of preserving Roman culture.

Shahmar Hasanov ha detto...

During the year and a half that I’ve been living in Rome, I realized fully what a global and diversified city it is! Just by walking in the center, or in the periphery, or in some other parts of the Eternal City, anyone can feel the multiculturalism, pluralism of beliefs, ideologies and languages. Hearing the Arabic, Russian, English, several Asian languages and many other, seeing the practitioners of Islam, Hinduism and different religions became the ordinary daily routine.
Apparently, when we talk about Rome, the first thing that comes to mind is the Catholicism and the location of Pope. And of course, Christians are still the main population, living along with numerous people who worship various external power.
I would say, Rome is the one of 5 or 6 cities which is known all over the world. It’s not a financial center like London or New-York, or a port city such as Rotterdam, but it’s indeed magnificent place with the abundant history, accompanied with the special atmosphere of grandness.
The people that come here and choose the city as a new home are so different, with their ambitions and goals, in fact. Before I’ve moved to my current apartment, I was living in neighborhood near Tor Bella Monaca. Even in that zone, which is considered to be “far from being the richest and safest part of the city” (let’s put it this way). And fascinatingly enough, around my place there were two different churches with specific believers. The 1st one was quite nice, with an extraordinary design and the worshippers belonged to the certain category of Christianity. While the second church was some building, Orthodox believers, mostly being visited by black people. I’m deeply sorry, if I’m even partly mistaken, cause I’m not well-aware of the Christianity and its divisions.
Considering all the things I’ve noted above, the one can easily see and truly feel the essence of multi-religiosity and how strongly it affects and influence the way of life of the inhabitants.

RIAS UDDIN ha detto...

Rome, the city which got to be an Empire, was continuously arranged to a cosmopolitanism without wildernesses, due to its common livelihood. Amid the various victories which quickly taken after one another over the centuries, it came into contact with numerous distinctive religions, populated by outside divinities. The unused factions were regularly some way or another consolidated, formally dressed, in the extraordinary cauldron of State religion; relations were in some cases questionable or extraordinarily antagonistic. In any occasion, numerous places in Rome and the encompassing regions still have self-evident follows of individuals of distinctive religions living together calmly. For illustration, the exceptionally antiquated nearness of Jewish synagogues was related in the 1st and 2nd centuries Advertisement to the secretive underground places of the faction of Mithra, the god who slaughtered the bull, while the most punctual Christian devout places were quickly taking shape.
Present day Rome is really not exceptionally diverse to Old Rome. Like a reflect, it has continuously reflected the same openness towards devout sharing. While the centuries ancient Jewish nearness is not solidified in the heart of the city, there is presently a require to supply places of revere and supplication to the unused remote communities as well, which are progressively more show and various, fair like in the Old Domain. This is the same Catholic soul in which the mosque was built. The religious and social scene of the city is hence colored like a valuable mosaic communicating in its diverse aspects the magnificence and lavishness of differing qualities.